MR-proADM as marker of endotheliitis predicts COVID-19 severity.
European journal of clinical investigation. 2021;(5):e13511
BACKGROUND Early identification of patients at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 constituted an unsolved challenge. Although growing evidence demonstrates a direct association between endotheliitis and severe COVID-19, the role of endothelial damage biomarkers has been scarcely studied. We investigated the relationship between circulating mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) levels, a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. METHODS Prospective observational study enrolling adult patients with confirmed COVID-19. On admission to emergency department, a blood sample was drawn for laboratory test analysis. Primary and secondary endpoints were 28-day all-cause mortality and severe COVID-19 progression. Area under the curve (AUC) and multivariate regression analysis were employed to assess the association of the biomarker with the established endpoints. RESULTS A total of 99 patients were enrolled. During hospitalization, 25 (25.3%) cases progressed to severe disease and the 28-day mortality rate was of 14.1%. MR-proADM showed the highest AUC to predict 28-day mortality (0.905; [CI] 95%: 0.829-0.955; P < .001) and progression to severe disease (0.829; [CI] 95%: 0.740-0.897; P < .001), respectively. MR-proADM plasma levels above optimal cut-off (1.01 nmol/L) showed the strongest independent association with 28-day mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.470, 95% CI: 2.066-53.049; P < .005) and with progression to severe disease (HR: 6.803, 95% CI: 1.458-31.750; P = .015). CONCLUSION Mid-regional proadrenomedullin was the biomarker with highest performance for prognosis of death and progression to severe disease in COVID-19 patients and represents a promising predictor for both outcomes, which might constitute a potential tool in the assessment of prognosis in early stages of this disease.
The Effect of Bacterial Infections, Probiotics and Zonulin on Intestinal Barrier Integrity.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2021;(21)
The intestinal barrier plays an extremely important role in maintaining the immune homeostasis of the gut and the entire body. It is made up of an intricate system of cells, mucus and intestinal microbiota. A complex system of proteins allows the selective permeability of elements that are safe and necessary for the proper nutrition of the body. Disturbances in the tightness of this barrier result in the penetration of toxins and other harmful antigens into the system. Such events lead to various digestive tract dysfunctions, systemic infections, food intolerances and autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic and probiotic bacteria, and the compounds they secrete, undoubtedly affect the properties of the intestinal barrier. The discovery of zonulin, a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, sheds new light on the understanding of the role of the gut barrier in promoting health, as well as the formation of diseases. Coincidentally, there is an increasing number of reports on treatment methods that target gut microbiota, which suggests that the prevention of gut-barrier defects may be a viable approach for improving the condition of COVID-19 patients. Various bacteria-intestinal barrier interactions are the subject of this review, aiming to show the current state of knowledge on this topic and its potential therapeutic applications.