Pre-existing COPD is associated with an increased risk of mortality and severity in COVID-19: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis.
Expert review of respiratory medicine. 2021;(5):705-716
Objectives: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate COVID-19 mortality and severity among patients with pre-existing COPD.Methods: We performed systematic searches in Ovid Medline, Embase via Ovid, PubMed, and Scopus from 15 December 2019 to 7 July 2020. Studies which reported the association and presented data on risk estimate (Hazard Ratio [HR]) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were extracted. A random-effects model was used to obtain the pooled estimates, and a pooled Risk Ratio (RR) was calculated. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.Results: Our meta-analysis showed an increased likelihood of mortality in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing COPD (RR 3.18, 95% CI 2.11-4.80, HR 1.90, 95%CI 1.11-3.26). Furthermore, the pooled estimate for the association between pre-existing COPD and severity due to COVID-19 was also significant (RR 3.63, 95%CI 2.48-5.31). Males had an increased risk of mortality (RR 1.20, 95%CI 1.12-1.29) compared to females.Conclusion: We found that patients with pre-existing COPD had more than 3 times higher risk of mortality and severe COVID-19. There is a need to identify patients with pre-existing COPD during the pandemic so that early interventions can be aimed at this group of patients.
The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: A systemic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of medical virology. 2020;(10):1915-1921
Comorbidities are associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This meta-analysis aimed to explore the risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ongoing smoking history. A comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out to find studies published from December 2019 to 22 March 2020 from five databases. The languages of literature included English and Chinese. The point prevalence of severe COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing COPD and those with ongoing smoking was evaluated with this meta-analysis. Overall 11 case series, published either in Chinese or English language with a total of 2002 cases, were included in this study. The pooled OR of COPD and the development of severe COVID-19 was 4.38 (fixed-effects model; 95% CI: 2.34-8.20), while the OR of ongoing smoking was 1.98 (fixed-effects model; 95% CI: 1.29-3.05). There was no publication bias as examined by the funnel plot and Egger's test (P = not significant). The heterogeneity of included studies was moderate for both COPD and ongoing smoking history on the severity of COVID-19. COPD and ongoing smoking history attribute to the worse progression and outcome of COVID-19.