Salud publica de Mexico. 2021;(2, Mar-Abr):232-241
Objetivo. Describir la evidencia disponible sobre la trans-misión por Covid-19 e infecciones respiratorias agudas simi-lares al Covid-19 en espacios públicos abiertos. Material y métodos. La búsqueda incluyó 4 926 artículos en inglés de los años 2000 a 2020. Seis investigadores revisaron el título y el resumen de los artículos de Embase y PubMed; dos inves-tigadores revisaron los de medRxiv. Todos los investigadores revisaron textos completos y otros resolvieron las discre-pancias. Resultados. De los 21 artículos seleccionados, se observó que la presencia de virus en superficies públicas, aguas residuales y áreas exteriores no fue indicativa de trans-misión. No obstante, se observó que el uso de cubrebocas, el lavado de manos, el distanciamiento social, no asistir a eventos masivos y la movilidad individual a espacios públicos podría ayudar a reducir el riesgo de transmisión. Conclusión. Esta información podría coadyuvar a generar recomendaciones en salud pública, sin embargo, es recomendable actualizar esta revisión conforme avance la evidencia científica.
Potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of severe coronavirus disease 2019: An ally for Latin America (Review).
International journal of molecular medicine. 2021;(4)
Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID‑19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID‑19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID‑19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID‑19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID‑19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.
Alcohol Use and the Risk of Communicable Diseases.
The body of knowledge on alcohol use and communicable diseases has been growing in recent years. Using a narrative review approach, this paper discusses alcohol's role in the acquisition of and treatment outcomes from four different communicable diseases: these include three conditions included in comparative risk assessments to date-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and lower respiratory infections/pneumonia-as well as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of its recent and rapid ascension as a global health concern. Alcohol-attributable TB, HIV, and pneumonia combined were responsible for approximately 360,000 deaths and 13 million disability-adjusted life years lost (DALYs) in 2016, with alcohol-attributable TB deaths and DALYs predominating. There is strong evidence that alcohol is associated with increased incidence of and poorer treatment outcomes from HIV, TB, and pneumonia, via both behavioral and biological mechanisms. Preliminary studies suggest that heavy drinkers and those with alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Aside from HIV research, limited research exists that can guide interventions for addressing alcohol-attributable TB and pneumonia or COVID-19. Implementation of effective individual-level interventions and alcohol control policies as a means of reducing the burden of communicable diseases is recommended.
Effects of Probiotics in Conditions or Infections Similar to COVID-19 on Health Outcomes: An Evidence Analysis Center Scoping Review.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2021;(9):1841-1854
Probiotics have been suggested as a potential intervention for improving outcomes, particularly ventilatory-associated pneumonia, in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, with the rapid development of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is little direct evidence available in infected patients. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the availability and nature of literature describing the effect of probiotics in adults with conditions or infections similar to COVID-19 infection on related health outcomes. MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Databases were searched for studies published from 1999 to May 1, 2020, examining the effect of probiotics in conditions applicable to individuals infected with COVID-19, including, but not limited to, other forms of coronavirus, critical illness, and mechanical ventilation. The databases search identified 1925 unique articles, 77 full-text articles were reviewed, and 48 studies were included in this scoping review, including 31 primary studies and 17 systematic reviews. Primary studies examined a range of interventions that varied by probiotic diversity and types, including 8 studies that focused on synbiotics, which include both pre- and probiotics. Several systematic reviews examined the effect of probiotics on ventilator-associated pneumonia and other infections. Although most systematic reviews concluded probiotics may improve these outcomes, most systematic review authors concluded that the evidence was low in quality and high in heterogeneity. In the absence of direct evidence with patients infected with COVID-19, studies in comparable populations are currently the best resource to guide probiotics interventions in conjunction with clinical expertise and multidisciplinary health care planning.