Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: randomized control trial in Singapore.
PURPOSE One of the key approaches to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission would be to reduce the titres of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important in high-risk procedures like dental treatment. The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. METHODS A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. The samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h. CONCLUSION The effect of decreasing salivary load with CPC and PI mouth-rinsing was observed to be sustained at 6 h time point. Within the limitation of the current study, as number of the samples analyzed, the use of CPC and PI formulated that commercial mouth-rinses may be useful as a pre-procedural rinse to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. ISRCTN (ISRCTN95933274), 09/09/20, retrospectively registered.
Clinical evaluation of antiseptic mouth rinses to reduce salivary load of SARS-CoV-2.
Scientific reports. 2021;(1):24392
Most public health measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic are based on preventing the pathogen spread, and the use of oral antiseptics has been proposed as a strategy to reduce transmission risk. The aim of this manuscript is to test the efficacy of mouthwashes to reduce salivary viral load in vivo. This is a multi-centre, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial that tests the effect of four mouthwashes (cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide) in SARS-CoV-2 salivary load measured by qPCR at baseline and 30, 60 and 120 min after the mouthrinse. A fifth group of patients used distilled water mouthrinse as a control. Eighty-four participants were recruited and divided into 12-15 per group. There were no statistically significant changes in salivary viral load after the use of the different mouthwashes. Although oral antiseptics have shown virucidal effects in vitro, our data show that salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients was not affected by the tested treatments. This could reflect that those mouthwashes are not effective in vivo, or that viral particles are not infective but viral RNA is still detected by PCR. Viral infectivity studies after the use of mouthwashes are therefore required. ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04707742 ; Identifier: NCT04707742).
Hypotheses about sub-optimal hydration in the weeks before coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a risk factor for dying from COVID-19.
Medical hypotheses. 2020;:110237
To address urgent need for strategies to limit mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this review describes experimental, clinical and epidemiological evidence that suggests that chronic sub-optimal hydration in the weeks before infection might increase risk of COVID-19 mortality in multiple ways. Sub-optimal hydration is associated with key risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, including older age, male sex, race-ethnicity and chronic disease. Chronic hypertonicity, total body water deficit and/or hypovolemia cause multiple intracellular and/or physiologic adaptations that preferentially retain body water and favor positive total body water balance when challenged by infection. Via effects on serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) signaling, aldosterone, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and/or Na+/K+-ATPase, chronic sub-optimal hydration in the weeks before exposure to COVID-19 may conceivably result in: greater abundance of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the lung, which increases likelihood of COVID-19 infection, lung epithelial cells which are pre-set for exaggerated immune response, increased capacity for capillary leakage of fluid into the airway space, and/or reduced capacity for both passive and active transport of fluid out of the airways. The hypothesized hydration effects suggest hypotheses regarding strategies for COVID-19 risk reduction, such as public health recommendations to increase intake of drinking water, hydration screening alongside COVID-19 testing, and treatment tailored to the pre-infection hydration condition. Hydration may link risk factors and pathways in a unified mechanism for COVID-19 mortality. Attention to hydration holds potential to reduce COVID-19 mortality and disparities via at least 5 pathways simultaneously.