The Complex Interplay between Immunonutrition, Mast Cells, and Histamine Signaling in COVID-19.
There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. At the same time, nutritional modulation of immune system function has been proposed and is being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19 or as an adjunctive strategy combined with conventional therapy. Several studies indicate that several immunonutrients can regulate mast cell activity to reduce the de novo synthesis and/or release of histamine and other mediators that are considered to mediate, at least in part, the complex pathophysiology present in COVID-19. This review summarizes the effects on mast cell histamine of common immunonutrients that have been investigated for use in COVID-19.
Combating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in COVID-19 by Molecular Hydrogen Therapy: Mechanisms and Perspectives.
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2021;:5513868
COVID-19 is a widespread global pandemic with nearly 185 million confirmed cases and about four million deaths. It is caused by an infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which primarily affects the alveolar type II pneumocytes. The infection induces pathological responses including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This situation results in impaired gas exchange, hypoxia, and other sequelae that lead to multisystem organ failure and death. As summarized in this article, many interventions and therapeutics have been proposed and investigated to combat the viral infection-induced inflammation and oxidative stress that contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, these methods have not significantly improved treatment outcomes. This may partly be attributable to their inability at restoring redox and inflammatory homeostasis, for which molecular hydrogen (H2), an emerging novel medical gas, may complement. Herein, we systematically review the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms of H2. Its small molecular size and nonpolarity allow H2 to rapidly diffuse through cell membranes and penetrate cellular organelles. H2 has been demonstrated to suppress NF-κB inflammatory signaling and induce the Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway, as well as to improve mitochondrial function and enhance cellular bioenergetics. Many preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of H2 in varying diseases, including COVID-19. However, the exact mechanisms, primary modes of action, and its true clinical effects remain to be delineated and verified. Accordingly, additional mechanistic and clinical research into this novel medical gas to combat COVID-19 complications is warranted.
Role of leukotriene pathway and montelukast in pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of Covid-19: The enigmatic entity.
European journal of pharmacology. 2021;:174196
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the responsible agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has its entry point through interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in lung type II alveolar cells and other tissues, like heart, pancreas, brain, and vascular endothelium. This review aimed to elucidate the potential role of leukotrienes (LTs) in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to reveal the critical role of LT pathway receptor antagonists and inhibitors in Covid-19 management. A literature search was done in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to find the potential role of montelukast and other LT inhibitors in the management of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Data obtained so far underline that pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations in Covid-19 are attributed to a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 in expressed ACE2 receptors or indirectly through NF-κB dependent induction of a cytokine storm. Montelukast can ameliorate extra-pulmonary manifestations in Covid-19 either directly through blocking of Cys-LTRs in different organs or indirectly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Role of pirfenidone in TGF-β pathways and other inflammatory pathways in acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection: a theoretical perspective.
Pharmacological reports : PR. 2021;(3):712-727
BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes pulmonary injury or multiple-organ injury by various pathological pathways. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a key factor that is released during SARS-CoV-2 infection. TGF-β, by internalization of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), suppresses the anti-oxidant system, downregulates the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and activates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). These changes cause inflammation and lung injury along with coagulopathy. Moreover, reactive oxygen species play a significant role in lung injury, which levels up during SARS-CoV-2 infection. DRUG SUGGESTION Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug with an anti-oxidant activity that can prevent lung injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection by blocking the maturation process of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and enhancing the protective role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Pirfenidone is a safe drug for patients with hypertension or diabetes and its side effect tolerated well. CONCLUSION The drug as a theoretical perspective may be an effective and safe choice for suppressing the inflammatory response during COVID-19. The recommendation would be a combination of pirfenidone and N-acetylcysteine to achieve maximum benefit during SARS-CoV-2 treatment.