Contemporary Concise Review 2020: Sleep.
Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). 2021;(7):700-706
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) now affects one-seventh of the world's population. Treatment of even mild OSA can improve daytime sleepiness and quality of life. Recent modifications to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty may make it a more widely applicable treatment option in selected patients with OSA. Diet and exercise have effects on sleep apnoea severity independent of weight loss. Insomnia has become increasingly common during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2021;(10):e14549
AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.