Nutrition and the Covid-19 pandemic: Three factors with high impact on community health.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2021;(3):756-761
AIMS: In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple suggestions have been delivered through websites and social media referring to natural substances and various kinds of supplements with thaumaturgical properties in preventing and/or fighting the coronavirus infection. Indeed, there is no clinical trial evidence that a dietary or pharmacological supplementation of any particular substance will increase the effectiveness of the immune defences. There are however three nutritional issues that deserve special attention under the present circumstances, namely vitamin D deficiency, excess salt intake and inappropriate alcohol consumption. Here is a short review of the current knowledge about the possible role of these factors in the immunity defence system and their potential impact on the modulation of the immune response to SARS-COV2 infection. DATA SYNTHESIS For all of these factors there is convincing evidence of an impact on the immune defence structure and function. In the absence of RCT demonstration that increased ingestion of any given substance may confer protection against the new enemy, special attention to correction of these three nutritional criticisms is certainly warranted at the time of COVID pandemic. CONCLUSIONS We propose that the inappropriate intake of salt and alcohol and the risk of inadequate vitamin D status should be object of screening, in particular in subjects at high mortality risk from SARS-COV 2 infection, such as institutionalised elderly subjects and all those affected by predisposing conditions.