Impact of COVID-19 induced lockdown on physical activity and sedentary behavior among university students: A systematic review.
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic has entailed a significant socio-economic impact on various layers of the population. In many countries, attempts to control viral dissemination involved lockdown measures that limited citizens' overall mobility and professional and leisure activities. OBJECTIVE This systematic review investigates the impact of COVID-19-induced lockdowns on university student physical activity and sedentary behav-ior, as these relate to physical and mental well-being. METHODS Data was collected through PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, and APA PsycInfo databases until January 2021. RESULTS Seven studies conducted in five different countries (United States, Spain, Italy, China, and United Kingdom) were included in the final review. Overall, most studies reported a significant decrease in mild physical activity (i.e., walking) among undergraduate students but not among graduate students. Consistently, most studies reported a significant increase in sedentary time (i.e., sitting time on weekdays) in undergraduate students but not in graduate students. We observed that students who were more sedentary previous to lockdown, increased or did not change their moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. In contrast, those who were less sedentary previous to lockdown decreased their moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS COVID 19 induced lockdowns appear to have negatively affected walking and sedentary behavior among undergraduate students but not among graduate students. Our results highlight the importance of promoting the World Health Organization recommendations for physical activity and sedentary behavior among university students to improve health outcomes.
Philosophy for children and mindfulness during COVID-19: Results from a randomized cluster trial and impact on mental health in elementary school students.
Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2021;:110260
BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on children's mental health. Given these problems can have significant impacts throughout the lifespan, preventing the negative repercussions of COVID-19 on children's mental health is essential. Philosophy for children (P4C) and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) show promise in this regard. OBJECTIVE The goal of the present study was to compare the impact of online MBI and P4C interventions on mental health, within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a randomized cluster trial to assess and compare the impact of both interventions on elementary school students' (N = 37) anxiety and inattention symptoms as well as on their basic psychological need satisfaction (BPN). RESULTS ANCOVAs revealed a significant effect of the P4C intervention on mental health difficulties, controlling for baseline levels. Participants in the P4C group showed lower scores on the measured symptoms at post-test than participants in the MBI group. Significant effects of the MBI on levels of BPN were also found. Participants in the MBI intervention reported greater BPN satisfaction at post-test than participants in the P4C intervention. CONCLUSION Results from this study suggest that, in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, a P4C intervention centered around COVID-19 related themes may be helpful to reduce mental health difficulties, that a MBI may be useful to satisfy BPN, and that both interventions were easy to offer online to elementary school students. Future work including a larger sample size and follow-up measures is warranted. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE Practice: Philosophy for children (P4C) and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be used to foster mental health in elementary school students, in the current COVID-19 context. Policy: As we do not anticipate that facilitators will be allowed in schools during the 2020-2021 school year and that children will, most likely, be attending school in the current COVID-19 context, policymakers who want to implement psychological support measures in elementary schools should consider an online modality, which has shown in this study to work well, be feasible, and yield positive results on youth mental health.
Physical Activity and Sedentary Lifestyle in University Students: Changes during Confinement Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;(18)
Regular physical activity is related to many factors in a university student's environment. The coronavirus pandemic and the resulting lockdown have restricted many elements of our environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour at two points in time: before and during the coronavirus lockdown. As a secondary aim, we also wanted to look at changes resulting from other factors (alcohol, tobacco, diet, stages of change, symptoms of anxiety/depression and sociodemographic characteristics). We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, pre-post study with two cut-off points. Two hundred and thirteen students took part in the study. The main dependent variables were physical activity and sitting time, measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used for paired and unpaired data, as well as group-stratified analysis. During lockdown, both weekly physical activity (MD: -159.87; CI: -100.44, -219.31) and weekly sitting time increased (MD: -106.76; CI: -71.85, -141.67). In the group analysis, differences were observed in relation to gender, year of study, BMI, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, symptoms of anxiety/depression, Mediterranean diet, living situation and stage of change. The results showed an increase in both physical activity and sitting time globally and by group.