Care of Pediatric Patients with Diabetes During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic.
Pediatric clinics of North America. 2021;(5):1093-1101
This article summarizes clinical observations and management strategies in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite initial fears that children with diabetes would, similar to adults with diabetes, be at risk for severe COVID-19, most pediatric patients with a history of T1D who developed COVID-19 had mild disease or were asymptomatic similar to their peers without diabetes. The article also summarizes the use of telemedicine to provide ongoing care for pediatric patients with T1D during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the article highlights important lessons learned about management of pediatric diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Evaluation of E-Health Applications for Paediatric Patients with Refractory Epilepsy and Maintained on Ketogenic Diet.
E-health technologies improve healthcare quality and disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a ketogenic diet management app as well as a website about this dietary treatment and to evaluate the benefits of giving caregivers access to various web materials designed for paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. Forty families participated in the questionnaire survey, from January 2016 to March 2016. All caregivers were exposed to paper-based materials about the ketogenic diet, whereas only 22 received the app, called KetApp, and videos produced by dieticians. Caregivers with free access to web materials were more satisfied than the others with the informative material provided by the centre (p ≤ 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). Indeed, they showed a better attitude towards treatment, and they became more aware of dietary management in comparison to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, caregivers provided with web materials were stimulated to pursue the treatment (p = 0.002) and to introduce it to their children and other people (p = 0.001). Additionally, caregivers supplied with web materials were more willing to help other families in choosing the ketogenic diet (p = 0.004). Overall, these findings indicate that web materials are beneficial for caregivers of paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy in our centres. Thus, the use of e-health applications could be a promising tool in the daily aspects of ketogenic diet management, and it is especially of value in the attempt to start or maintain the diet during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic crisis.
Digital technology, tele-medicine and artificial intelligence in ophthalmology: A global perspective.
Progress in retinal and eye research. 2021;:100900
The simultaneous maturation of multiple digital and telecommunications technologies in 2020 has created an unprecedented opportunity for ophthalmology to adapt to new models of care using tele-health supported by digital innovations. These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-dependent ecosystem offering opportunities to develop new models of eye care addressing the challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. Ophthalmology has thrived in some of these areas partly due to its many image-based investigations. Tele-health and AI provide synchronous solutions to challenges facing ophthalmologists and healthcare providers worldwide. This article reviews how countries across the world have utilised these digital innovations to tackle diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, refractive error correction, cataract and other anterior segment disorders. The review summarises the digital strategies that countries are developing and discusses technologies that may increasingly enter the clinical workflow and processes of ophthalmologists. Furthermore as countries around the world have initiated a series of escalating containment and mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of eye care services globally has been significantly impacted. As ophthalmic services adapt and form a "new normal", the rapid adoption of some of telehealth and digital innovation during the pandemic is also discussed. Finally, challenges for validation and clinical implementation are considered, as well as recommendations on future directions.
COVID-19 Launches Retinal Telemedicine into the Next Frontier.
Seminars in ophthalmology. 2021;(4):258-263
INTRODUCTION Telemedicine in ophthalmology, and specifically in retinal diseases, has made significant advancements in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic has launched telehealth into a new era by creating demand from patients and physicians alike, while breaking down previous insurance, reimbursement, access and educational barriers. METHODS This paper reviews mulitple studies demonstrating the use of telemedicine in managing various retinal conditions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION Moving forward, promising new devices and models of care ensure that tele-retinal care will continue to expand and become a vital part of how we screen, diagnose and monitor retinal diseases.
Impact of teleophthalmology during COVID-19 lockdown in a tertiary care center in South India.
Indian journal of ophthalmology. 2021;(3):714-718
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to describe the experience of teleconsultations addressed at our hospital in India during the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) lockdown. METHODS This cross-sectional hospital-based study included 977 teleconsultations presenting between April 1st and May 31, 2020. A two-level protocol was implemented to triage the calls. RESULTS Overall, 977 teleconsultation were addressed. Of the 621 teleconsultation addressed the most common queries were related to redness/pain/ watering/blurred vision/itching/irritation (52.49%), followed by queries related to medications (28.01%), appointments (18.84%) & 0.64% cited an emergency need to visit the hospital due to sudden loss of vision. The majority of the queries were directed to the department of cornea (58.93%) followed by retina (16.26%), cataract (13.04%), glaucoma (10.14%) & pediatric ophthalmology (1.61%). The most common advice given to the patient was related to medications (47.66%) followed by appointment-related queries (31.72%) & fixing of surgical appointment (20.61%). Among the 356 preterm babies that were screened, 57 (16.01%) were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Of them 3 required laser and 3 were given injection. CONCLUSION Teleconsultation is here to stay beyond the pandemic. WhatsApp was the preferred modality of communication for us. Teleophthalmology has given us insights to use this evolving technology to reach out to the population at large to provide eye care services. We believe that this mode of teleophthalmology has helped us in providing feasible eye care to the patients.
People living with type 1 diabetes point of view in COVID-19 times (COVIDT1 study): Disease impact, health system pitfalls and lessons for the future.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2021;:108547
AIMS: To analyse the effects of confinement among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their caregivers over the course of the COVID-19 crisis and to evaluate contemporary changes in medical assistance and patient preferences. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study designed as a self-reported web-based survey was conducted over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS A total of 769 subjects participated in the survey (603 people with T1D and 166 caregivers). Changes in glycaemic control were reported in 66% of cases, weight gain in 40.4% of cases and decreased exercise levels in 65.4% of cases. Of the cohort, 53% maintained contact with the healthcare team, and 23% received specific information related to COVID-19. Emotional support was requested by 17% of respondents. Regarding telemedicine, 97.9% agreed with its use with the following preferences regarding the future: telephone call (84.5%), video-call (60.6%) and platform devices (39.7%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, at least two-thirds of people with T1D underwent changes in the management of their condition. Almost all participants agreed with the concept of telemedicine, favouring telephone and video calls as their preferred means of communication.
Advances in Telemedicine in Ophthalmology.
Seminars in ophthalmology. 2020;(4):210-215
Telemedicine is the provision of healthcare-related services from a distance and is poised to move healthcare from the physician's office back into the patient's home. The field of ophthalmology is often at the forefront of technological advances in medicine including telemedicine and the use of artificial intelligence. Multiple studies have demonstrated the reliability of tele-ophthalmology for use in screening and diagnostics and have demonstrated benefits to patients, physicians, as well as payors. There remain obstacles to widespread implementation, but recent legislation and regulation passed due to the devastating COVID-19 pandemic have helped to reduce some of these barriers. This review describes the current status of tele-ophthalmology in the United States including benefits, hurdles, current programs, technology, and developments in artificial intelligence. With ongoing advances patients may benefit from improved detection and earlier treatment of eye diseases, resulting in better care and improved visual outcomes.
A guide for urogynecologic patient care utilizing telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic: review of existing evidence.
International urogynecology journal. 2020;(6):1063-1089
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS The COVID-19 pandemic and the desire to "flatten the curve" of transmission have significantly affected the way providers care for patients. Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgeons (FPMRS) must provide high quality of care through remote access such as telemedicine. No clear guidelines exist on the use of telemedicine in FPMRS. Using expedited literature review methodology, we provide guidance regarding management of common outpatient urogynecology scenarios during the pandemic. METHODS We grouped FPMRS conditions into those in which virtual management differs from direct in-person visits and conditions in which treatment would emphasize behavioral and conservative counseling but not deviate from current management paradigms. We conducted expedited literature review on four topics (telemedicine in FPMRS, pessary management, urinary tract infections, urinary retention) and addressed four other topics (urinary incontinence, prolapse, fecal incontinence, defecatory dysfunction) based on existing systematic reviews and guidelines. We further compiled expert consensus regarding management of FPMRS patients in the virtual setting, scenarios when in-person visits are necessary, symptoms that should alert providers, and specific considerations for FPMRS patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS Behavioral, medical, and conservative management will be valuable as first-line virtual treatments. Certain situations will require different treatments in the virtual setting while others will require an in-person visit despite the risks of COVID-19 transmission. CONCLUSIONS We have presented guidance for treating FPMRS conditions via telemedicine based on rapid literature review and expert consensus and presented it in a format that can be actively referenced.