Thrombosis and Haemostasis challenges in COVID-19 - Therapeutic perspectives of heparin and tissue-type plasminogen activator and potential toxicological reactions-a mini review.
Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2021;:111974
The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic is a major challenge for the health systems worldwide. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is one of the most common complications of the COVID-19 infection. The activation of the coagulation system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ARDS. The development of lung coagulopathy involves thrombin generation and fibrinolysis inhibition. Unfractionated heparin and its recently introduced counterpart low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), are widely used anticoagulants with a variety of clinical indications allowing for limited and manageable physio-toxicologic side effects while the use of protamine sulfate, heparin's effective antidote, has made their use even safer. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is approved as intravenous thrombolytic treatment. The present narrative review discusses the use of heparin and tPA in the treatment of COVID-19-induced ARDS and their related potential physio-toxicologic side effects. The article is a quick review of articles on anticoagulation in COVID infection and the potential toxicologic reactions associated with these drugs.