Study of Thoracic CT in COVID-19: The STOIC Project.
Background There are conflicting data regarding the diagnostic performance of chest CT for COVID-19 pneumonia. Disease extent at CT has been reported to influence prognosis. Purpose To create a large publicly available data set and assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT in COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods This multicenter, observational, retrospective cohort study involved 20 French university hospitals. Eligible patients presented at the emergency departments of the hospitals involved between March 1 and April 30th, 2020, and underwent both thoracic CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. CT images were read blinded to initial reports, RT-PCR, demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and outcome. Readers classified CT scans as either positive or negative for COVID-19 based on criteria published by the French Society of Radiology. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a model predicting severe outcome (intubation or death) at 1-month follow-up in patients positive for both RT-PCR and CT, using clinical and radiologic features. Results Among 10 930 patients screened for eligibility, 10 735 (median age, 65 years; interquartile range, 51-77 years; 6147 men) were included and 6448 (60%) had a positive RT-PCR result. With RT-PCR as reference, the sensitivity and specificity of CT were 80.2% (95% CI: 79.3, 81.2) and 79.7% (95% CI: 78.5, 80.9), respectively, with strong agreement between junior and senior radiologists (Gwet AC1 coefficient, 0.79). Of all the variables analyzed, the extent of pneumonia at CT (odds ratio, 3.25; 95% CI: 2.71, 3.89) was the best predictor of severe outcome at 1 month. A score based solely on clinical variables predicted a severe outcome with an area under the curve of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.66), improving to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.6, 0.71) when it also included the extent of pneumonia and coronary calcium score at CT. Conclusion Using predefined criteria, CT reading is not influenced by reader's experience and helps predict the outcome at 1 month. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04355507 Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Rubin in this issue.
CT-derived Chest Muscle Metrics for Outcome Prediction in Patients with COVID-19.
Background Lower muscle mass is a known predictor of unfavorable outcomes, but its prognostic impact on patients with COVID-19 is unknown. Purpose To investigate the contribution of CT-derived muscle status in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods Clinical or laboratory data and outcomes (intensive care unit [ICU] admission and death) were retrospectively retrieved for patients with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, who underwent chest CT on admission in four hospitals in Northern Italy from February 21 to April 30, 2020. The extent and type of pulmonary involvement, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion were assessed. Cross-sectional areas and attenuation by paravertebral muscles were measured on axial CT images at the T5 and T12 vertebral level. Multivariable linear and binary logistic regression, including calculation of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were used to build four models to predict ICU admission and death, which were tested and compared by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results A total of 552 patients (364 men and 188 women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 54-75 years]) were included. In a CT-based model, lower-than-median T5 paravertebral muscle areas showed the highest ORs for ICU admission (OR, 4.8; 95% CI: 2.7, 8.5; P < .001) and death (OR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9; P = .03). When clinical variables were included in the model, lower-than-median T5 paravertebral muscle areas still showed the highest ORs for both ICU admission (OR, 4.3; 95%: CI: 2.5, 7.7; P < .001) and death (OR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.7; P = .001). At receiver operating characteristic analysis, the CT-based model and the model including clinical variables showed the same area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for ICU admission prediction (AUC, 0.83; P = .38) and were not different in terms of predicting death (AUC, 0.86 vs AUC, 0.87, respectively; P = .28). Conclusion In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, lower muscle mass on CT images was independently associated with intensive care unit admission and in-hospital mortality. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
The impact of chest CT body composition parameters on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
PloS one. 2021;(5):e0251768
We assessed the impact of chest CT body composition parameters on outcomes and disease severity at hospital presentation of COVID-19 patients, focusing also on the possible mediation of body composition in the relationship between age and death in these patients. Chest CT scans performed at hospital presentation by consecutive COVID-19 patients (02/27/2020-03/13/2020) were retrospectively reviewed to obtain pectoralis muscle density and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, IMAT) at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. Primary outcomes were: hospitalization, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or death, death alone. Secondary outcomes were: C-reactive protein (CRP), oxygen saturation (SO2), CT disease extension at hospital presentation. The mediation of body composition in the effect of age on death was explored. Of the 318 patients included in the study (median age 65.7 years, females 37.7%), 205 (64.5%) were hospitalized, 68 (21.4%) needed MV, and 58 (18.2%) died. Increased muscle density was a protective factor while increased TAT, VAT, and IMAT were risk factors for hospitalization and MV/death. All these parameters except TAT had borderline effects on death alone. All parameters were associated with SO2 and extension of lung parenchymal involvement at CT; VAT was associated with CRP. Approximately 3% of the effect of age on death was mediated by decreased muscle density. In conclusion, low muscle quality and ectopic fat accumulation were associated with COVID-19 outcomes, VAT was associated with baseline inflammation. Low muscle quality partly mediated the effect of age on mortality.
Clinical utility of perfusion (Q)-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for diagnosing pulmonary embolus (PE) in COVID-19 patients with a moderate to high pre-test probability of PE.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2021;(3):794-799
PURPOSE We reviewed the clinical utility of perfusion (Q)-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for diagnosing pulmonary embolus (PE) in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). METHODS Following the World Health Organization's declaration of a global pandemic, our department policy recommended Q-only SPECT/CT for all patients undergoing nuclear medicine evaluation for suspected PE to reduce the risk of aerosolization of respiratory droplets. We performed a retrospective review of sequential patients admitted with COVID-19 imaged with Q-SPECT/CT between March 17, 2020, and June 30, 2020, at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We recorded patient demographics, clinical symptoms, Wells score (to stratify patients according to pre-test probability for PE prior to Q-SPECT/CT), and noted ancillary imaging findings on CT. RESULTS Of the 33 patients imaged with Q-SPECT/CT, 6 patients (3 men, 3 women) had a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (mean age, 55, ± 11.4 years, range 33-68). All patients had a current diagnosis of malignancy and had a moderate or high pre-test probability for PE (mean Wells score 2.8, range 2-4). Q-SPECT/CT was positive in 4/6 (67%) of patients. Distribution of pulmonary emboli was bilateral and segmental in 75% of patients. Ancillary acute findings on SPECT/CT included bilateral parenchymal ground glass opacities (n = 5), pleural effusions (n = 2), and pneumomediastinum (n = 1). CONCLUSION Q-SPECT/CT has clinical utility for diagnosing PE in patients with COVID-19 where there is a contraindication for iodinated contrast media and a moderate or high pre-test probability for PE.