COVID-19 and liver dysfunction: What nutritionists need to know.
World journal of gastroenterology. 2022;(15):1526-1535
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has brought serious challenges for the medical field. Patients with COVID-19 usually have respiratory symptoms. However, liver dysfunction is not an uncommon presentation. Additionally, the degree of liver dysfunction is associated with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of malnutrition should be routinely recommended in the management of patients with COVID-19, especially in those with liver dysfunction. Recently, a large number of studies have reported that nutrition therapy measures, including natural dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, and probiotics, might have potential hepatoprotective effects against COVID-19-related liver dysfunction via their antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and positive immunomodulatory effects. This review mainly focuses on the possible relationship between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction, nutritional and metabolic characteristics, nutritional status assessment, and nutrition therapy to provide a reference for the nutritionists while making evidence-based nutritional decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 and micronutrient deficiency symptoms - is there some overlap?
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2022;:275-281
BACKGROUND & AIMS COVID-19 is highly inflammatory and when it affects the elderly who have multiple comorbidities, the risk of malnutrition is high. The aim of this review is to highlight the evidence for COVID-19 and risk for malnutrition (macro- and micro-nutrient deficiency) sharing two case reports. METHODS We report two cases of patients with COVID-19. The first case includes a 75-year-old male with increasing confusion, delirium and malnutrition once he had clinically resolved from his COVID-19 diagnosis. The patient had a number of comorbidities and was treated with diuretics before and after his hospital admission. He was treated with intravenous thiamine and enteral nutrition. The second case includes a 77-year-old male with diabetes who presented with suspected vitamin C deficiency likely due to chronic aspirin use nearly two weeks prior to being diagnosed with pneumonia and COVID-19. The patient recovered from his COVID-19 diagnosis but continued to decline nutritionally and was readmitted sixty days later with failure to thrive. RESULTS The first case had significant improvements in his appetite and neurological conditions following thiamine infusion and enteral nutrition and was discharged to home after a 19-day hospital stay. The second case presented with a vitamin C deficiency before testing positive for COVID-19. Although he did recover from COVID-19 he struggled to meet nutritional needs post-COVID and passed away 60 days after his COVID-19 diagnosis with pneumonia and failure to thrive. CONCLUSION Elderly patients with chronic diseases who use nutrient depleting medications are particularly high risk for micronutrient deficiency when they also experience the inflammatory insult of COVID-19. Patients who continue to have poor nutrition intake even after they appear to be clinically resolved from the virus should be closely monitored.
The Feasibility and User-Experience of a Digital Health Intervention Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in New Kidney Transplant Recipients-The ExeRTiOn2 Trial.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:887580
Half of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) gain more than 5% of their body weight in the first year following transplantation. KTRs have requested support with physical activity (PA) and weight gain prevention, but there is no routine care offered. There are few high-quality studies investigating the clinical value of diet, PA or combined interventions to prevent weight gain. The development and evaluation of theoretically informed complex-interventions to mitigate weight gain are warranted. The aims of this mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (RCT) were to explore the feasibility, acceptability and user-experience of a digital healthcare intervention (DHI) designed to prevent post-transplant weight gain, in preparation for a large multi-center trial. New KTRs (<3 months) with access to an internet compatible device were recruited from a London transplant center. The usual care (UC) group received standard dietary and PA advice. The intervention group (IG) received access to a 12-week DHI designed to prevent post-transplant weight gain. Primary feasibility outcomes included screening, recruitment, retention, adherence, safety and hospitalizations and engagement and experience with the DHI. Secondary outcomes (anthropometrics, bioimpedance, arterial stiffness, 6-minute walk distance and questionnaires) were measured at baseline, 3- and 12-months. 38 KTRs were screened, of which 32 (84.2%) were eligible, and of those 20 (62.5%) consented, with 17 participants (85%) completing baseline assessment (Median 49 years, 58.8% male, Median 62 days post-transplant). Participants were randomized using a computer-generated list (n = 9 IG, n = 8 UC). Retention at 12-months was 13 (76.4%) (n = 6 IG, n = 7 UC). All a priori progression criteria were achieved. There were no associated adverse events. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed four themes regarding trial participation and experience whilst using the DHI. Halting recruitment due to COVID-19 resulted in the recruitment of 40% of the target sample size. Mixed-methods data provided important insights for future trial design. A definitive RCT is warranted and welcomed by KTRs. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03996551.
Multitarget microangiopathy in a young healthy man with COVID-19 disease: A case report.
Indian journal of ophthalmology. 2022;(2):673-676
A 41-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of decrease of vision in his left eye. Initial examination was consistent with retrobulbar optic neuritis, and an intravenous drip of methylprednisolone was started. On the third day, the fundus examination revealed the appearance of multiple Purtscher-like cotton-wool spots in the posterior pole and nasally to the optic disc, slight retinal whitening around the fovea, and cherry-red spot. The patient reported flu-like symptoms, and he tested positive at PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test for 2019-nCoV (2019 novel coronavirus) infection. Assuming possible 2019-nCoV-related vascular damage, we prescribed low-molecular-weight heparin. The lesions were regressing at follow-up, and we registered a complete visual recovery.
Cerebral venous thrombosis without thrombocytopenia after a single dose of COVID-19 (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccine injection: a case report.
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2022;(5):2951-2956
BACKGROUND The coronavirus pandemic became the hard challenge for the modern global health system. To date, vaccination is the best strategy against Sars-Cov-2-related illness. About 3 billions of people received at least one of the approved vaccines. The related adverse events were reported during the various experimental phases, but newer and less common side effects are emerging post-marketing. Vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (VITT) is one of these insidious adverse reactions and it is considered responsible of venous thrombosis, in both the splanchnic and the cerebral circulation. Although its mechanism has been presumably established, resembling that observed in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, some venous thromboses seem not to recognize this etiology and their pathogenesis remains unknown. Here we described a case of cerebral venous thrombosis after administration of the Ad26.COV2.S, presenting without thrombocytopenia, paving the way for possible novel causes of this vaccine-induced pathological condition. CASE PRESENTATION A 45-year-old woman came to our observation for bilateral periorbital headache associated with retro-orbital pain started 8 days after administration of COVID vaccine Jannsen. Ophthalmologic exam showing a bilateral papilledema raised the suspicion of intracranial hypertension. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal alteration with T1-positive contrast enhancement in the right temporal and insular lobes suggestive of cerebral venous thrombosis. The absence of thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) antibodies led the clinicians to rule out VITT. The patient was treated successfully with warfarin. CONCLUSION Venous thrombosis occurring after COVID-19 vaccination represents an adverse event of special interest. Patients with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia appear to be affected by a general thrombophilic state, sustained by an autoimmune mechanism, and show a higher mortality. Thrombosis without thrombocytopenia's pathogenesis has not yet been clarified, but laboratory data and good response to vitamin K antagonists help clinicians in the differential diagnosis with VITT. Future research will allow us to discover other possible mechanisms and maybe identify a subgroup of patients with a higher risk of developing this medical complication.
Late diagnosis of severe long-standing autoimmune hypothyroidism after the first lockdown for the Covid-19 pandemic: clinical features and follow-up.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2022;(S1):e2021239
BACKGROUND AND AIM Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common endocrinopathy in children, particularly in females. Clinical overt presentation of hypothyroidism in HT includes mild to very severe forms, characterised by impairment of many body functions and organs, such as heart, brain, muscles, ovaries and liver. CASE we report the case of a 14-year-old girl, with severe hypothyroidism due to a late diagnosis of HT during the Covid-19 pandemic. Routine biochemical and hormonal exams were carried out at presentation. Moderate pericardial effusion was detected by echocardiography and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) was found on the pelvic ultrasound. Furthermore, high levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (LDH) and hepatic liver enzymes, associated with muscular pseudohypertrophy and bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, were suggestive of a rare presentation of long-standing hypothyroidism defined Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome (KDSS). Levothyroxine replacement therapy was started immediately, leading to a rapid improvement of symptoms and a progressive normalization of the biochemical parameters. Due to persistent lower limb weakness, further neurological investigations were performed, showing bilateral peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP), ascribable to the longstanding and severe hypothyroidism. A pelvic ultrasound, performed after thyroid hormones had normalised and menses had turned to be regular, showed normal ovarian features supporting the hypothesis of the Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome in a post-menarcheal girl. CONCLUSIONS although clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism are usually mild, more severe and rare presentations such as ovarian dysfunction and myopathy are possible, particularly if the diagnosis is delayed and replacement therapy is not promptly administered.
Early Post-Renal Transplant Hyperglycemia.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2022;(2):549-562
CONTEXT Though posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM, occurring > 45 days after transplantation) and its complications are well described, early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia (EPTH) (< 45 days) similarly puts kidney transplant recipients at risk of infections, rehospitalizations, and graft failure and is not emphasized much in the literature. Proactive screening and management of EPTH is required given these consequences. OBJECTIVE The aim of this article is to promote recognition of early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia, and to summarize available information on its pathophysiology, adverse effects, and management. METHODS A PubMed search was conducted for "early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia," "immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia," "post-renal transplant diabetes," "renal transplant," "diabetes," and combinations of these terms. EPTH is associated with significant complications including acute graft failure, rehospitalizations, cardiovascular events, PTDM, and infections. CONCLUSION Patients with diabetes experience better glycemic control in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with resurgence of hyperglycemia after kidney transplant. Patients with and without known diabetes are at risk of EPTH. Risk factors include elevated pretransplant fasting glucose, diabetes, glucocorticoids, chronic infections, and posttransplant infections. We find that EPTH increases risk of re-hospitalizations from infections (cytomegalovirus, possibly COVID-19), acute graft rejections, cardiovascular events, and PTDM. It is essential, therefore, to provide diabetes education to patients before discharge. Insulin remains the standard of care while inpatient. Close follow-up after discharge is recommended for insulin adjustment. Some agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown promise. The tenuous kidney function in the early posttransplant period and lack of data limit the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. There is a need for studies assessing noninsulin agents for EPTH to decrease risk of hypoglycemia associated with insulin and long-term complications of EPTH.
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: case-report and review of the literature.
Acta clinica Belgica. 2022;(1):113-117
OBJECTIVE Recent publications on Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) report that diabetic people with or without co-morbidities are at higher risk of developing severe and/or fatal illnesses. METHOD AND RESULT We report the first case of a 60-year-old man with a 27-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus, infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting with an euglycaemic ketoacidosis and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSION This case report reminds us of the importance of adjusting more recent glucose-lowering drugs, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, in the overall management of type 1 diabetic individuals during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. ABBREVIATIONS COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, T1DM: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2i: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis, euDKA: euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis.
VLCKD in Combination with Physical Exercise Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in Sarcopenic Obesity after Severe COVID-19 Disease: A Case Report.
Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;(3)
The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity is increasing worldwide, with a strong impact on public health and the national health care system. Sarcopenic obesity consists of fat depot expansion and associated systemic low-grade inflammation, exacerbating the decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Dietary approach and physical exercise represent essential tools for reducing body weight and preserving muscle mass and function in subjects with sarcopenic obesity. This case report describes the effects of a dietary intervention, based on a Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) combined with physical exercise, on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and muscle strength in a woman with sarcopenic obesity, two weeks after hospitalization for bilateral interstitial pneumonia due to COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the efficacy of a combined approach intervention including VLCKD along with physical exercise, in reducing fat mass, improving metabolic profile, and preserving skeletal muscle performance in a patient with obesity, soon after severe COVID-19 disease.
Combined Nasal, Oropharyngeal Povidone Iodine Plus Glycyrrhizic Acid Sprays, Accelerate Clinical and Laboratory Recovery and Reduces Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;:863917
The COVID-19 pandemic is still posing challenging health and economic problems. Effective broad-spectrum antiviral therapy is urgently needed for the control of early SARS-CoV-2 infection to limit its spread and mutations. In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical study, we tested the effects of intranasal and oropharyngeal delivery of a compound of povidone-iodine 0.5% and glycyrrhizic acid 2.5 mg/ml on the laboratory (PCR) and clinical recovery from SARS-CoV-2 patients and their household contacts. 353 patients suspected of having COVID-19 infection were screened by chest CT and nasopharyngeal swab tests (PCR). 200 patients were randomly allocated to two equal groups: treatment and placebo groups. Treatment accelerated the recovery of PCR on days 4, 7, and 10, as evidenced by PCR-positive patients (70, vs. 99%, 20 vs. 65%, 1 vs. 10%) in both the treated and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment enhanced the early recovery of symptoms [day 7.6 ± 2 (CI 7:8.3) vs. 8.9 ± 2 (CI 8.3:9.6)]. Treatment promoted early recovery of anosmia and ageusia [5.6 ± 1 (CI, 4.8:6.4) vs. 11 ± 3 days, (CI, 10.8:12)] in both the treated and control groups (P < 0.0001). There was a notable reduction in transmission of the virus among the household close contacts in the treatment group (4%) vs. 76% in the placebo group. Combined PVI-GA nasal and oropharyngeal spray accelerates both laboratory and clinical recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the early phases of the disease and reduces the household spread of the virus; thus, it may play an important role in controlling coronavirus outbreaks. Clinical Trial Registration: https://pactr.samrc.ac.za, PACTR202101875903773.