COVID-19 presenting as acute epiglottitis: A case report and literature review.
Auris, nasus, larynx. 2023;(1):165-168
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occasionally causes acute laryngitis, requiring emergency treatment. Understanding the characteristic laryngeal findings can help diagnose COVID-19 earlier, prevent worsening infection, and properly manage airway obstruction. Herein, we report the case of a 44-year-old male with acute epiglottitis likely caused by COVID-19. On presentation, chest computed tomography (CT) showed no signs of pneumonia. However, the larynx had extensive necrotic-like erosive lesions resembling those of tuberculous laryngitis. COVID-19 was diagnosed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and secondary bacterial superinfections were suspected after blood testing. The symptoms improved after administration of antibiotics (sulbactam sodium/ampicillin sodium), steroids (dexamethasone), and favipiravir. The patient developed a high fever on the sixth day of hospitalization, and pneumonia was identified on CT. Various culture tests, including tuberculosis, were negative. Thus, remdesivir was administered for COVID-19-induced pneumonia. The patient gradually recovered, was transferred to another hospital, and was discharged on the 35th day of hospitalization. Six previous case reports of COVID-19-induced acute epiglottitis suggested that acute epiglottitis preceded the onset of pneumonia. The laryngeal findings from this report may be useful for diagnosing COVID-19 that does not cause pneumonia and for bringing attention to pneumonia after a COVID-19 diagnosis.
Case report of long-term postural tachycardia syndrome in a patient after messenger RNA coronavirus disease-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273.
European heart journal. Case reports. 2023;(8):ytad390
BACKGROUND Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by orthostatic intolerance and heart rate increase in an upright position without orthostatic hypotension. It has been described after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as well as after COVID-19 vaccination. CASE SUMMARY A 54-year-old female patient presented with a 9-months history of severe orthostatic intolerance since COVID-19 vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Spikevax, Moderna). Except for diet-controlled coeliac disease, the patient was healthy, had no allergies, and did not take regular medication. Tilt table testing revealed a significant heart rate increase to 168 bpm without orthostatic hypotension accompanied by light-headedness, nausea, and syncope, findings consistent with POTS. Potential underlying causes including anaemia, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, pheochromocytoma, (auto)-immune disease, chronic inflammation as well as neurological causes were ruled out. Echocardiography and cardiac stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not detect structural or functional heart disease or myocardial ischaemia. Forty-eight-hour-electrocardiogram (ECG) showed no tachycardias other than sinus tachycardia. Finally, genomic analysis did not detect an inherited arrhythmia syndrome. Serologic analysis revealed adequate immune response to mRNA-1273 vaccination without signs of previous severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection. While ivabradine was not tolerated and metoprolol extended release only slightly improved symptoms, physical exercise reduced orthostatic intolerance moderately. At a 5-months follow-up, the patient remained dependant on assistance for activities of daily living. DISCUSSION The temporal association of POTS with the COVID-19 vaccination in a previously healthy patient and the lack of evidence of an alternative aetiology suggests COVID-19 vaccination is the potential cause of POTS in this patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting severe, long-term, and treatment-refractory POTS following COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA1273.
COVID-19 induced type 1 diabetes: A systematic review of case reports and series.
The Journal of international medical research. 2023;(11):3000605231210403
AIMS: To provide an overview of reported cases of new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) following COVID-19 infection. METHODS PubMed and Scopus library databases were screened for relevant case reports published between January 2020 and June 2022. Study design, geographic region or language were not restricted. RESULTS Twenty studies were identified and involved 37 patients (20 [54%] male, 17 [46%] female). Median age was 11.5 years (range 8 months-33 years) and 31 (84%) patients were aged ≤17 years. Most patients (33, 89%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In total, 23 (62%) patients presented at the time of positive COVID-19 testing and 14 (38%) had symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection or a previous positive test (1-56 days). Diabetes symptomatology was provided in 22 cases and (19, 86%) reported polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, fatigue, or weight loss or a combination of the aforementioned in the preceding weeks (3 days-12 weeks). Of the 28 patients that had data on acute and long-term treatment, all recovered well and most were managed with basal bolus insulin regimens. Quality assessment showed that most reports were either 'good' or 'moderate quality'. CONCLUSIONS Although uncommon, new-onset T1D is a condition healthcare professionals may expect to see following a COVID-19 infection.
Neuroimaging of COVID-19.
Seminars in neurology. 2023;(2):205-218
We review the wide variety of common neuroimaging manifestations related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID therapies, grouping the entities by likely pathophysiology, recognizing that the etiology of many entities remains uncertain. Direct viral invasion likely contributes to olfactory bulb abnormalities. COVID meningoencephalitis may represent direct viral infection and/or autoimmune inflammation. Para-infectious inflammation and inflammatory demyelination at the time of infection are likely primary contributors to acute necrotizing encephalopathy, cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum, and diffuse white matter abnormality. Later postinfectious inflammation and demyelination may manifest as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or transverse myelitis. The hallmark vascular inflammation and coagulopathy of COVID-19 may produce acute ischemic infarction, microinfarction contributing to white matter abnormality, space-occupying hemorrhage or microhemorrhage, venous thrombosis, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Adverse effects of therapies including zinc, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, and vaccines, and current evidence regarding "long COVID" is briefly reviewed. Finally, we present a case of bacterial and fungal superinfection related to immune dysregulation from COVID.
Lobomycosis in a Post-Covid 19 Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
Turk patoloji dergisi. 2023;(3):206-211
AIM: To document a case of lobomycosis and to discuss its epidemiology & diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented with a history of nasal congestion, nasal discharge, and epistaxis following Covid 19 infection. On physical examination, there was necrotic slough in the nasal vestibule near the inferior turbinate. Scrapings and punch biopsy were taken from the lesion. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections showed necrotic and mucoid areas with mixed inflammatory cell infiltration and numerous budding yeasts 3- 7μm diameter in singles, and small clusters with single narrow based budding as well as multiple budding including sequential budding forming "chains of yeasts". A diagnosis of Lobomycosis was made. Yeasts of lobomycosis are often confused with other yeasts such as P. brasiliensis, Candida spp., B. dermatitidis, and Cryptococci, but characteristic 'sequential budding' with a 'chain of yeasts" aid in the final diagnosis. Demonstration of yeasts with characteristic chains either in tissue sections or in potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation of scraped material, exudate, or exfoliative cytology is the mainstay in the diagnosis as the organisms are uncultivable in vitro in culture medium.
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants in a woman with Hashimoto thyroiditis and familial autoimmunity-a case report and literature review.
Frontiers in immunology. 2023;:1139603
INTRODUCTION Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) consists of a wide spectrum of symptoms and immunological features that are believed to develop in predisposed individuals after exposure to an adjuvant, including a silicone breast implant (SBI). Different autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have been associated with ASIA, but ASIA development after SBI in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and familial autoimmunity has rarely been described. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old woman presented in 2019 with arthralgia, sicca symptoms, fatigue, + antinuclear antibody (ANA), + anti SSA, and + anticardiolipin Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. She was diagnosed with HT and vitamin D deficiency in 2012. The familial autoimmunity was present: the patient's mother had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary Sjogren's syndrome and her grandmother with cutaneous lupus and pernicious anemia. In 2017, the patient had a cosmetic SBI procedure that was complicated by repeated right breast capsulitis. After 2 years of irregular visits due to COVID-19, she presented with + ANA, + anticentromere antibodies both in sera and seroma, sicca syndrome, arthralgias, twinkling in extremities, abnormal capillaroscopic findings, and reduced diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. She was diagnosed with ASIA, and antimalarial and corticosteroid therapy were introduced. CONCLUSION In patients with HT and familial autoimmunity, SBI should be carefully considered due to the possibility of ASIA development. Hashimoto thyroiditis, familial autoimmunity, and ASIA seem to be interconnected in the complex mosaic of autoimmunity in predisposed individuals.
COVID-19-Triggered Acute Liver Failure and Rhabdomyolysis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
COVID-19 is primarily known for its respiratory tract involvement, often leading to severe pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 can result in multiorgan failure, affecting organs beyond the respiratory system. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with COVID-19 who developed acute liver failure (ALF) and rhabdomyolysis in the absence of respiratory failure. Initially, the patient presented with significantly elevated aspartate transaminase (5398 U/L) and alanine transaminase (2197 U/L) levels. Furthermore, a prolonged prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.33 indicated the diagnosis of ALF without hepatic coma, according to Japanese diagnostic criteria. The patient also exhibited elevated creatine kinase (9498 U/L) and a mild increase in creatinine (1.25 mg/dL) levels, but both values improved with intravenous fluid support and molnupiravir administration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case presenting with both ALF and rhabdomyolysis associated with COVID-19. In addition, we review the existing literature to summarize previously reported cases of ALF triggered by SARS-CoV-2. This case report underscores the significance of recognizing COVID-19 as a significant contributing factor in the development of multiorgan failure. Furthermore, it suggests that COVID-19 can lead to severe illness, irrespective of the absence of respiratory failure.
Autoimmune diabetes mellitus after COVID-19 vaccination in adult population: a systematic review of case reports.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2023;(1):164
BACKGROUND Autoimmune/type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a recently described rare occurrence following the administration of adjuvants such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. This systematic review aimed to review all available literature on the potential association between COVID-19 vaccines and T1DM. METHODS The Directory of Open Access Journals, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Scopus were systematically searched for all published studies from inception to July 2022. Articles reporting T1DM development within 8 weeks of administration of COVID-19 vaccine were included. Two reviewers independently performed the risk of bias assessment following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Reports. RESULTS Eight eligible studies were retrieved, comprising 12 patients diagnosed with T1DM after being vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Six patients (50%) reported T1DM after receiving the second dose. Five patients (41.7%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, of which four presented within the first eight days after vaccination. Five patients (41.7%) had genetic susceptibility, with RNA binding motif protein 45 (RBM45/DRB1) and major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 (HLA-DQB1) mutations being prominent. INTERPRETATION In this review, we have shown a small number of new-onset diabetes cases coincidently occurring soon after the COVID-19 vaccine, especially in those with genetic susceptibility. Despite being older, these patients had a similar phenotype to T1DM. While there might be a causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and T1DM development, this should not influence decisions regarding vaccination since the overall benefit outweighs the risk. Further larger prospective trials are needed to assess causal relationship and to clarify the potential roles of COVID-19 vaccine-derived antigens in autoimmune disease development. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION PROSPERO-CRD42022342093.
New-onset Thyroid Eye Disease after COVID-19 Vaccination in a Radioactive Iodine-Treated Graves' Disease Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2023;(1):125-130
Autoimmunity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been well-described as the mechanism of development of thyroid dysfunction following Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) infection and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. However, the occurrence of thyroid eye disease (TED) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is scarcely described. The postulated mechanisms include immune reactivation, molecular mimicry and the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). We report a case of new-onset TED after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis-related myopathy in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report and systematic literature review.
RATIONALE Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease. However, its presentation and management in the context of COVID-19 are unclear, and COVID-19-triggered HT, along with myopathy and persistent creatine kinase (CK) levels, have not been previously reported. Moreover, no literature review is currently available on HT in the context of COVID-19. This study is a case report and systematic review of the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS A 33-year-old man was admitted with acute-onset myalgia, anosmia, loss of taste, fever, and upper respiratory tract symptoms. DIAGNOSES He was diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during hospitalization and had abnormal CK levels. The elevated CK level persisted even after the resolution of COVID-19. After excluding myopathies and cardiac factors, HT was diagnosed. INTERVENTIONS CK levels did not decrease appreciably until 14 d after levothyroxine administration. OUTCOMES The patient was discharged from the hospital in good health. In the systematic literature review, 7 case reports on COVID-19-associated HT were observed, although no incidence of associated myopathy or persistent elevation of CK was noted. LESSONS This case report highlights the potential link between COVID-19 and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In particular, this study underscores the significance of recognizing new-onset autoimmune thyroid disease in COVID-19-positive patients with elevated CK levels that cannot be attributed to other factors. This systematic review offers additional perspectives for diagnosing and managing HT in COVID-19 settings. Overall, the findings of this study could have important clinical implications for the care of COVID-19 patients, as early identification and treatment of autoimmune thyroid disease could help prevent long-term complications. Additional research is essential to elucidate the fundamental correlations between COVID-19 and HT and assess the effectiveness of therapeutic approaches for autoimmune thyroid conditions related to COVID-19.