Thyroid as a target of adjuvant autoimmunity/inflammatory syndrome due to mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination: from Graves' disease to silent thyroiditis.
Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2022;(4):875-882
BACKGROUND As COVID-19 became a pandemic, the urgent need to find an effective treatment vaccine has been a major objective. Vaccines contain adjuvants which are not exempt from adverse effects and can trigger the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). There is very little information about autoimmune endocrine disease and the ASIA after the use of mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination. CASE SERIES We report three cases and also review the literature showing that the thyroid gland can be involved in the ASIA induced by the mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination. We present the first case to date of silent thyroiditis described in the context of SARS-CoV2 vaccination with Pfizer/BioNTech. Also, we discuss the first subacute thyroiditis in the context of SARS-CoV2 vaccination with the Moderna's vaccine. Finally, we provide another case to be added to existing evidence on Graves' disease occurring post-vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. DISCUSSION Adjuvants play an important role in vaccines. Their ability to increase the immunogenicity of the active ingredient is necessary to achieve the desired immune response. Both the Moderna and the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines use mRNA coding for the SARS-CoV2 S protein enhanced by adjuvants. In addition, the cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV2 and thyroid antigens has been reported. This would explain, at least, some of the autoimmune/inflammatory reactions produced during and after SARS-CoV2 infection and vaccination. CONCLUSION The autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants involving the thyroid could be an adverse effect of SARS-CoV2 vaccination and could be underdiagnosed.
COVID-19 and liver dysfunction: What nutritionists need to know.
World journal of gastroenterology. 2022;(15):1526-1535
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has brought serious challenges for the medical field. Patients with COVID-19 usually have respiratory symptoms. However, liver dysfunction is not an uncommon presentation. Additionally, the degree of liver dysfunction is associated with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of malnutrition should be routinely recommended in the management of patients with COVID-19, especially in those with liver dysfunction. Recently, a large number of studies have reported that nutrition therapy measures, including natural dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, and probiotics, might have potential hepatoprotective effects against COVID-19-related liver dysfunction via their antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and positive immunomodulatory effects. This review mainly focuses on the possible relationship between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction, nutritional and metabolic characteristics, nutritional status assessment, and nutrition therapy to provide a reference for the nutritionists while making evidence-based nutritional decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Alleviation of Post-COVID-19 Cognitive Deficits by Treatment with EGb 761®: A Case Series.
The American journal of case reports. 2022;:e937094
BACKGROUND Cognitive symptoms persisting longer than 3 months after infection, such as memory loss, or difficulties concentrating, have been reported in up to one-third of patients after COVID-19. Evidence-based therapeutic interventions to treat post-COVID-19 symptoms (also called "Long-COVID symptoms") have not yet been established, and the treating physicians must rely on conjecture to help patients. Based on its mechanism of action and its efficacy in treating cognitive impairment, as well as its good tolerability, the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 has been suggested as a remedy to alleviate cognitive post-COVID-19 symptoms. In many studies, EGb 761 has been demonstrated to protect endothelial cells, to have potent anti-inflammatory effects, and to enhance neuroplasticity. CASE REPORT Here, we report for the first time the application of EGb 761 in the therapy of post-COVID-19-related cognitive deficits. Three women and 2 men, aged 26 to 59 years (average age 34.6 years), presented with concentration and attention deficits, cognitive deficiencies, and/or fatigue 9-35 weeks after infection. A daily dose of 2×80 mg of EGb 761 did not cause any detectable adverse effects, and it substantially improved or completely restored cognitive deficits and, when initially present, also other symptoms, such as fatigue and hyposmia, within an observation period of up to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Our observations support the hypothesis that EGb 761 might be a low-risk treatment option for post-COVID-19 patients with cognitive symptoms. Moreover, we derive recommendations for randomized controlled clinical trials to confirm efficacy in that indication.
Rhabdomyolysis after COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which muscle breaks down potentially leading to renal dysfunction, and often occurs secondary to a precipitating factor. Viral or bacterial infections are common precipitants for initiating rhabdomyolysis. Recently, healthcare systems across the world have been challenged by a pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing 'coronavirus disease 2019' (COVID-19) disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection is recognized to cause respiratory and cardiovascular compromise, thromboembolic events, and acute kidney injury (AKI); however, it is not known whether it can precipitate rhabdomyolysis, with only a limited number of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection preceding rhabdomyolysis reported to date. Here, we report the case of a 64-year-old woman who developed rhabdomyolysis shortly after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. She initially presented with muscular pain, a creatine kinase level of 119,301 IU/L, and a mild rise in her creatinine level to 92 µmol/L, but successfully recovered with intravenous fluid support. We also review the literature to summarise previously reported cases of rhabdomyolysis precipitated by SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need to consider this diagnosis in patients presenting with SARS-CoV-2 and myalgia.
[Robotic-assisted mobilization for an effective mobilization in a COVID-19 patient with ECMO treatment].
Die Anaesthesiologie. 2022;(12):959-964
An effective (early) mobilization in COVID-19 intensive care patients with ECMO treatment is very important. Sedation, extracorporeal procedures with the danger of circuit malfunction, large lumen ECMO cannulas with a risk of dislocation and a very severe neuromuscular weakness are factors that could deem mobilization beyond stage 1 of the ICU mobility score (IMS) in some cases difficult or impossible; however, early mobilization is a key point of the ABCDEF bundle to counteract pulmonary complications, neuromuscular dysfunction and enable recovery. The case of a 53-year-old, previously healthy and active male patient with a severe and complicated course of COVID-19 and pronounced ICU-acquired weakness is described. While receiving ECMO the patient could be mobilized using a robotic system. Due to severe and rapidly progressing pulmonary fibrosis, additional low-dose methylprednisolone therapy (Meduri protocol) was implemented. Under this multimodal treatment the patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator and decannulated. Robotic-assisted mobilization has the potential to be a novel and safe therapeutic option for a customized and highly effective mobilization in ECMO patients.
Cerebral venous thrombosis without thrombocytopenia after a single dose of COVID-19 (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccine injection: a case report.
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2022;(5):2951-2956
BACKGROUND The coronavirus pandemic became the hard challenge for the modern global health system. To date, vaccination is the best strategy against Sars-Cov-2-related illness. About 3 billions of people received at least one of the approved vaccines. The related adverse events were reported during the various experimental phases, but newer and less common side effects are emerging post-marketing. Vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (VITT) is one of these insidious adverse reactions and it is considered responsible of venous thrombosis, in both the splanchnic and the cerebral circulation. Although its mechanism has been presumably established, resembling that observed in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, some venous thromboses seem not to recognize this etiology and their pathogenesis remains unknown. Here we described a case of cerebral venous thrombosis after administration of the Ad26.COV2.S, presenting without thrombocytopenia, paving the way for possible novel causes of this vaccine-induced pathological condition. CASE PRESENTATION A 45-year-old woman came to our observation for bilateral periorbital headache associated with retro-orbital pain started 8 days after administration of COVID vaccine Jannsen. Ophthalmologic exam showing a bilateral papilledema raised the suspicion of intracranial hypertension. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal alteration with T1-positive contrast enhancement in the right temporal and insular lobes suggestive of cerebral venous thrombosis. The absence of thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) antibodies led the clinicians to rule out VITT. The patient was treated successfully with warfarin. CONCLUSION Venous thrombosis occurring after COVID-19 vaccination represents an adverse event of special interest. Patients with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia appear to be affected by a general thrombophilic state, sustained by an autoimmune mechanism, and show a higher mortality. Thrombosis without thrombocytopenia's pathogenesis has not yet been clarified, but laboratory data and good response to vitamin K antagonists help clinicians in the differential diagnosis with VITT. Future research will allow us to discover other possible mechanisms and maybe identify a subgroup of patients with a higher risk of developing this medical complication.
VLCKD in Combination with Physical Exercise Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in Sarcopenic Obesity after Severe COVID-19 Disease: A Case Report.
Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;(3)
The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity is increasing worldwide, with a strong impact on public health and the national health care system. Sarcopenic obesity consists of fat depot expansion and associated systemic low-grade inflammation, exacerbating the decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Dietary approach and physical exercise represent essential tools for reducing body weight and preserving muscle mass and function in subjects with sarcopenic obesity. This case report describes the effects of a dietary intervention, based on a Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) combined with physical exercise, on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and muscle strength in a woman with sarcopenic obesity, two weeks after hospitalization for bilateral interstitial pneumonia due to COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the efficacy of a combined approach intervention including VLCKD along with physical exercise, in reducing fat mass, improving metabolic profile, and preserving skeletal muscle performance in a patient with obesity, soon after severe COVID-19 disease.
The Feasibility and User-Experience of a Digital Health Intervention Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in New Kidney Transplant Recipients-The ExeRTiOn2 Trial.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:887580
UNLABELLED Half of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) gain more than 5% of their body weight in the first year following transplantation. KTRs have requested support with physical activity (PA) and weight gain prevention, but there is no routine care offered. There are few high-quality studies investigating the clinical value of diet, PA or combined interventions to prevent weight gain. The development and evaluation of theoretically informed complex-interventions to mitigate weight gain are warranted. The aims of this mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (RCT) were to explore the feasibility, acceptability and user-experience of a digital healthcare intervention (DHI) designed to prevent post-transplant weight gain, in preparation for a large multi-center trial. New KTRs (<3 months) with access to an internet compatible device were recruited from a London transplant center. The usual care (UC) group received standard dietary and PA advice. The intervention group (IG) received access to a 12-week DHI designed to prevent post-transplant weight gain. Primary feasibility outcomes included screening, recruitment, retention, adherence, safety and hospitalizations and engagement and experience with the DHI. Secondary outcomes (anthropometrics, bioimpedance, arterial stiffness, 6-minute walk distance and questionnaires) were measured at baseline, 3- and 12-months. 38 KTRs were screened, of which 32 (84.2%) were eligible, and of those 20 (62.5%) consented, with 17 participants (85%) completing baseline assessment (Median 49 years, 58.8% male, Median 62 days post-transplant). Participants were randomized using a computer-generated list (n = 9 IG, n = 8 UC). Retention at 12-months was 13 (76.4%) (n = 6 IG, n = 7 UC). All a priori progression criteria were achieved. There were no associated adverse events. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed four themes regarding trial participation and experience whilst using the DHI. Halting recruitment due to COVID-19 resulted in the recruitment of 40% of the target sample size. Mixed-methods data provided important insights for future trial design. A definitive RCT is warranted and welcomed by KTRs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION www.clinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03996551.
Late diagnosis of severe long-standing autoimmune hypothyroidism after the first lockdown for the Covid-19 pandemic: clinical features and follow-up.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2022;(S1):e2021239
BACKGROUND AND AIM Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common endocrinopathy in children, particularly in females. Clinical overt presentation of hypothyroidism in HT includes mild to very severe forms, characterised by impairment of many body functions and organs, such as heart, brain, muscles, ovaries and liver. CASE we report the case of a 14-year-old girl, with severe hypothyroidism due to a late diagnosis of HT during the Covid-19 pandemic. Routine biochemical and hormonal exams were carried out at presentation. Moderate pericardial effusion was detected by echocardiography and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) was found on the pelvic ultrasound. Furthermore, high levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (LDH) and hepatic liver enzymes, associated with muscular pseudohypertrophy and bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, were suggestive of a rare presentation of long-standing hypothyroidism defined Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome (KDSS). Levothyroxine replacement therapy was started immediately, leading to a rapid improvement of symptoms and a progressive normalization of the biochemical parameters. Due to persistent lower limb weakness, further neurological investigations were performed, showing bilateral peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP), ascribable to the longstanding and severe hypothyroidism. A pelvic ultrasound, performed after thyroid hormones had normalised and menses had turned to be regular, showed normal ovarian features supporting the hypothesis of the Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome in a post-menarcheal girl. CONCLUSIONS although clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism are usually mild, more severe and rare presentations such as ovarian dysfunction and myopathy are possible, particularly if the diagnosis is delayed and replacement therapy is not promptly administered.
Combined Nasal, Oropharyngeal Povidone Iodine Plus Glycyrrhizic Acid Sprays, Accelerate Clinical and Laboratory Recovery and Reduces Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;:863917
UNLABELLED The COVID-19 pandemic is still posing challenging health and economic problems. Effective broad-spectrum antiviral therapy is urgently needed for the control of early SARS-CoV-2 infection to limit its spread and mutations. In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical study, we tested the effects of intranasal and oropharyngeal delivery of a compound of povidone-iodine 0.5% and glycyrrhizic acid 2.5 mg/ml on the laboratory (PCR) and clinical recovery from SARS-CoV-2 patients and their household contacts. 353 patients suspected of having COVID-19 infection were screened by chest CT and nasopharyngeal swab tests (PCR). 200 patients were randomly allocated to two equal groups: treatment and placebo groups. Treatment accelerated the recovery of PCR on days 4, 7, and 10, as evidenced by PCR-positive patients (70, vs. 99%, 20 vs. 65%, 1 vs. 10%) in both the treated and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment enhanced the early recovery of symptoms [day 7.6 ± 2 (CI 7:8.3) vs. 8.9 ± 2 (CI 8.3:9.6)]. Treatment promoted early recovery of anosmia and ageusia [5.6 ± 1 (CI, 4.8:6.4) vs. 11 ± 3 days, (CI, 10.8:12)] in both the treated and control groups (P < 0.0001). There was a notable reduction in transmission of the virus among the household close contacts in the treatment group (4%) vs. 76% in the placebo group. Combined PVI-GA nasal and oropharyngeal spray accelerates both laboratory and clinical recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the early phases of the disease and reduces the household spread of the virus; thus, it may play an important role in controlling coronavirus outbreaks. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION https://pactr.samrc.ac.za, PACTR202101875903773.