Effectiveness of Curcumin on Outcomes of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.
Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1β and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.
IL-6 antagonists to replace systemic corticosteroids as the preferred anti-inflammatory therapy in patients with COVID-19?
The effectiveness of high-dose intravenous vitamin C for patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Complementary therapies in medicine. 2022;:102797
OBJECTIVES Vitamin C has anti-inflammatory effects. This review aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS The following key phrases were searched for article inclusion: "Vitamin C OR ascorbic acid" AND "COVID-19 OR coronavirus disease 2019 OR severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 OR SARS-CoV-2″. Articles that utilized HDIVC for the management of patients with COVID-19 were included, whereas review articles and case reports were excluded from this review. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether HDIVC can reduce the length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality rate of patients with severe COVID-19. RESULTS In total, eight articles were included in this review, and five studies were included in the meta-analysis. The length of hospital stay was not significantly different between the HDIVC and control groups. Also, although our meta-analysis showed a tendency for HDIVC to reduce the in-hospital mortality rate in patients with severe COVID-19, the in-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different between patients treated with HDIVC and those who did not receive HDIVC. CONCLUSIONS Evidence supporting the therapeutic use of HDICV in COVID-19 patients is lacking. Further studies are required for drawing a clear conclusion on this topic.
The Relationship Between Hepcidin-Mediated Iron Dysmetabolism and COVID-19 Severity: A Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in public health. 2022;:881412
Backgrounds: Hepcidin has been identified as a systemic iron-regulatory hormone. Recent studies have suggested that iron metabolism disorders may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objectives: To re-evaluate the hepcidin-related iron metabolism parameters and explore the relationship between hepcidin-mediated iron dysmetabolism and COVID-19 severity. Methods: COVID-19 is classified as mild and moderate as non-severe, severe and critical as severe. A meta-analysis was conducted. Four bibliographic databases were comprehensively searched up to December 31st 2021. Results: Six unique studies with data from 477 COVID-19 patients were included. Compared to non-severe cases, severe cases had higher hepcidin (standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.39; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [-0.76, -0.03]; P = 0.03) and ferritin (SMD, -0.84; 95% CI [-1.30, -0.38]; P = 0.0004). In five out of six studies, a total of 427 patients were tested for serum iron, and there were significant differences in their levels between severe and non-severe cases (SMD, 0.22; 95% CI [0.02, 0.41]; P = 0.03). A total of 320 patients from four out of six studies were tested for transferrin saturation, and the statistical difference was not significant (SMD, 0.06; 95% CI [-0.17, 0.28]; P = 0.64). Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 cases had higher serum levels of hepcidin and ferritin, and lower serum iron, without significant differences in transferrin saturation. Further studies are needed to verify whether targeting the hepcidin-mediated iron metabolism axis may influence the outcome and treatment of COVID-19.
The Association Between Antidiabetic Agents and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients With Diabetes: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2022;:895458
Aims: This study aimed to assess the impact of different antidiabetic agents on individuals with diabetes and COVID-19. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to October 31, 2021 and included seven antidiabetic agents. The data were pooled via traditional pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Results: The pairwise meta-analysis included 35 studies. Metformin (odds ratio (OR), 0.74; P=0.001), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) (OR, 0.88; P=0.04), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) (OR, 0.82; P=0.001), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA) (OR, 0.91; P=0.02) treatment were associated with lower COVID-19 mortality in individuals with diabetes compared to respective non-users. However, insulin treatment resulted in higher mortality (OR, 1.8; P=0.001). Mortality did not significantly differ in sulfonylurea (OR, 0.97; P=0.56) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) (OR, 1.00; P=0.96) users. Furthermore, due to limited data, we analyzed five antidiabetic agents (metformin, DPP4i, sulfonylurea, insulin, and SGLT2i) and found no association between them and severe disease risk (all P>0.05). The Bayesian network meta-analysis included 18 studies. GLP1RA and SGLT2i had the highest first and second rank probability (67.3% and 62.5%, respectively). Insulin showed the maximum probability of ranking seventh (97.0%). Metformin had the third and fourth highest rank probability of 44.8% and 38.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, DPP4i had the fifth-highest rank probability of 42.4%, followed by sulfonylurea at 45.1%. Conclusion: Metformin, DPP4i, SGLT2i, and GLP1RA treatments were highly possible to reduced COVID-19 mortality risk in individuals with diabetes, while insulin might be related to increased mortality risk. Sulfonylurea and TZDs treatments were not associated with mortality. None of the antidiabetic agents studied were associated with the risk of severe disease. Additionally, GLP1RA probably had the most significant protective effect against death, followed by SGLT2i and metformin. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42021288200).
Ambient air pollution and COVID-19 risk: Evidence from 35 observational studies.
Environmental research. 2022;(Pt B):112065
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is severely threatening and challenging public health worldwide. Epidemiological studies focused on the influence of outdoor air pollution (AP) on COVID-19 risk have produced inconsistent conclusions. We aimed to quantitatively explore this association using a meta-analysis. METHODS We searched for studies related to outdoor AP and COVID-19 risk in the Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. No language restriction was utilized. The search date entries were up to August 13, 2021. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained with random-/fixed-effects models. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021244656. RESULTS A total of 35 articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. For long-term exposure to AP, COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with 1 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; effect size = 1.042, 95% CI 1.017-1.068), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5; effect size = 1.056, 95% CI 1.039-1.072), and sulfur dioxide (SO2; effect size = 1.071, 95% CI 1.002-1.145). The COVID-19 mortality was positively associated with 1 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; effect size = 1.034, 95% CI 1.006-1.063), PM2.5 (effect size = 1.047, 95% CI 1.025-1.1071). For short-term exposure to air pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with 1 unit increase in air quality index (effect size = 1.001, 95% CI 1.001-1.002), 1 μg/m3 increase NO2 (effect size = 1.014, 95% CI 1.011-1.016), particulate matter with diameter <10 μm (PM10; effect size = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.008), PM2.5 (effect size = 1.003, 95% CI 1.002-1.004), and SO2 (effect size = 1.015, 95% CI 1.007-1.023). CONCLUSIONS Outdoor air pollutants are detrimental factors to COVID-19 outcomes. Measurements beneficial to reducing pollutant levels might also reduce the burden of the pandemic.
The UK Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme and diet, physical activity, and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from eight longitudinal population surveys.
BMC medicine. 2022;(1):147
BACKGROUND In March 2020, the UK implemented the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (furlough) to minimise job losses. Our aim was to investigate associations between furlough and diet, physical activity, and sleep during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS We analysed data on 25,092 participants aged 16-66 years from eight UK longitudinal studies. Changes in employment, including being furloughed, were based on employment status before and during the first lockdown. Health behaviours included fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Study-specific estimates obtained using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and pre-pandemic health and health behaviours, were statistically pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Associations were also stratified by sex, age, and education. RESULTS Across studies, between 8 and 25% of participants were furloughed. Compared to those who remained working, furloughed workers were slightly less likely to be physically inactive (RR = 0.85; [95% CI 0.75-0.97]; I 2 = 59%) and did not differ overall with respect to low fruit and vegetable consumption or atypical sleep, although findings for sleep were heterogenous (I 2 = 85%). In stratified analyses, furlough was associated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption among males (RR = 1.11; [1.01-1.22]; I 2 = 0%) but not females (RR = 0.84; [0.68-1.04]; I 2 = 65%). Considering changes in quantity, furloughed workers were more likely than those who remained working to report increases in fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, and hours of sleep. CONCLUSIONS Those furloughed exhibited similar health behaviours to those who remained in employment during the initial stages of the pandemic. There was little evidence to suggest that adoption of such social protection policies in the post-pandemic recovery period and during future economic crises had adverse effects on population health behaviours.
Zinc supplementation and COVID-19 mortality: a meta-analysis.
European journal of medical research. 2022;(1):70
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the agent of a pneumonia outbreak and was called 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 and now considered a pandemic. Zinc supplementation can reduce mortality in patients with severe pneumonia. This study aimed at meta-analysis of the results of related studies and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on COVID-19 mortality. METHODS A systematic search has conducted for manuscripts through PUBMED/Medline and Google Scholar (Cochrane guideline has considered it as the gray literature) up to September 2021. This meta-analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) Guideline for evaluation of the effect zinc supplementation on COVID-19 mortality. Based on the heterogeneity a fixed-effect or random-effect model, the OR and 95% CI were used to assess the combined risk. RESULTS After assessment, five studies with 1506 participants in case and control groups were included in meta-analysis. The OR for one study was not estimable, and the pool OR was estimated for other studies with 1398 participants. The meta-analysis showed that zinc supplementation in cases led to a significant lower risk of mortality when it was compared with the control group; pooled OR (95% CI) was 0.57 [0.43, 0.77] (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis has suggested that zinc supplementation is associated with a lower mortality rate in COVID-19 patients. Zinc supplementation could be considered as a simple way and cost benefit approach for reduction of mortality in COVID-19 patients.
The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis.
Journal of medical virology. 2022;(6):2402-2413
The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.
COVID-19-Related Retinal Micro-vasculopathy - A Review of Current Evidence.
American journal of ophthalmology. 2022;:98-110
PURPOSE To evaluate the occurrence of retinal microvasculopathy in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and who developed coronavirus disease (COVID-19). DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS The Pubmed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched to identify studies that reported retina vascular changes in eyes with COVID-19. Two independent reviewers selected papers and extracted data for analysis. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed in RevMan Web versions 3.3. Quality of evidence was assessed using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool for a case-control study. RESULTS Thirty-one studies reporting on 1373 subjects (972 COVID-19 and 401 controls) were included. Only case-control studies were included in the pooled analysis. There was a significantly higher likelihood of retinal microvasculopathy in subjects with COVID-19 compared to controls (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.86 [2.54-27.53], P < .01). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) revealed reduced vessel density and enlarged foveal avascular zone in subjects with COVID-19 compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS The results suggested that COVID-19-related retinal microvasculopathy is a significant ocular manifestation of COVID-19 and may herald future retinal complications. These microvascular impairments might have occurred antecedent to clinically visible changes and could be detected earlier by OCTA. These findings are significant, due to the large numbers with COVID-19, and need to be recognized by ophthalmologists as a potential long-term sequalae of the disease.