Delta neutrophil index and C-reactive protein: a potential diagnostic marker of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with COVID-19.
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;(2):775-781
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening hyperinflammation syndrome emerging after COVID-19. The serum delta neutrophil index (DNI) reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes and is evaluated in infection and inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of DNI as a diagnostic marker in patients with MIS-C and to assess its role in determining the severity of MIS-C. This retrospective, observational study included 83 patients with MIS-C and 113 patients with COVID-19, and 102 healthy controls. C-reactive protein (CRP), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), DNI, and the platelet count were recorded. The DNI levels were 4.60 ± 5.70% in the MIS C group, 0.30 ± 0.99% in the COVID group, and 0.20 ± 0.56% in the control group (p < 0.001). According to the severity of MIS-C, the DNI level was found to be 1.22% in mild MIS-C, 4.3% in moderate MIS-C, and 5.7% in severe MIS-C. There was a statistically significant correlation between DNI levels and the severity of MIS-C. The cutoff value of DNI for predicting MIS-C was 0.45%. In the analysis of the diagnostic performance of DNI compared with CRP, ANC, ALC and platelet counts, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were found to be 79.5%, 97.1%, 95.7%, and 85.3%, respectively.Conclusions: The delta neutrophil index was identified as a diagnostic marker for MIS-C such as ANC, ALC, platelet count, and CRP. DNI levels in hemogram analysis may guide clinicians in determining the diagnosis and severity of MIS-C. What is Known: • Although CRP, sedimentation, ALC, ANC, platelet count, sodium, and albumin are used as first step tests, there is no specific laboratory marker used in the diagnosis of MIS C. • The serum delta neutrophil index (DNI) reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes and is elevated in infection and inflammation. What is New: • DNI is a promising and easily accessible marker that can be used with other markers in the diagnosis and determines the severity of MIS C. • DNI is an easily accessible, inexpensive, and dynamic marker and its levels in simple hemogram analysis will guide pediatricians in determining the diagnosis and severity in MIS C.
How the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the training of Endocrinology and Nutrition Residents. Results of a survey by the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.
Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion. 2022;(3):219-226
INTRODUCTION COVID-19 disease has become a priority for our healthcare system. The resident physicians training in endocrinology and nutrition (E&N residents) have been integrated into the COVID-19 teams. This study has been designed with the aim of analysing the educational, occupational and health impact on E&N residents. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cross-sectional observational study via a web survey, aimed at E&N residents who are members of the SEEN, carried out in November 2020. The following data were analysed: demographic variables, number of beds in the training hospital, alteration of rotations, integration in COVID-19 teams, participation in telemedicine, scientific activity and impact on physical and emotional health. RESULTS 87 responses were obtained (27% of all E&N residents), 67.8% women, 28.1 ± 1.8 years, 60% 4th year E&N residents. 84% participated in COVID-19 teams and 93% in the telemedicine consultations of their service. Most have had their rotations interrupted. 97.7% have participated in scientific meetings or virtual congresses and a third of them have collaborated in scientific work on COVID-19 in relation to endocrinology and nutrition. Overall, 75.8% think the pandemic has affected their mood a lot or quite a lot, and 73.8% think that the pandemic has negatively impacted their training. CONCLUSIONS The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has compromised the training, work activity and health of E&N residents. They have been integrated both in COVID-19 teams and in the restructured activity of their departments. However, they have managed to continue their training in virtual format and have participated in scientific work.
High serum nitrates levels in non-survivor COVID-19 patients.
Medicina intensiva. 2022;(3):132-139
OBJECTIVE Higher blood nitrate and nitrite levels have been found in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients than in healthy subjects. The present study explores the potential association between serum nitrate levels and mortality in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN A prospective observation study was carried out. SETTING Eight Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from 6 hospitals in the Canary Islands (Spain). PATIENTS COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTIONS Determination of serum nitrate levels at ICU admission. MAIN VARIABLE OF INTEREST Mortality at 30 days. RESULTS Non-surviving (n=11) compared to surviving patients (n=42) showed higher APACHE-II (p<0.001) and SOFA scores (p=0.004), and higher serum nitrate levels (p=0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed serum nitrate levels to be associated to 30-day mortality after controlling for SOFA (OR=1.021; 95%CI=1.006-1.036; p=0.01) or APACHE-II (OR=1.023; 95%CI=1.006-1.041; p=0.01). There were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for mortality prediction by serum nitrate levels (AUC=83%; 95%CI=73-92%; p<0.001), APACHE II (AUC=85%; 95%CI=75-96%; p<0.001) and SOFA (AUC=78%; 95%CI=63-92%; p=0.005) based on the DeLong method. The Kaplan-Meier analysis found patients with serum nitrates levels>68.4μmol/l to have a higher mortality rate (hazard ratio=138.8; 95%CI=22.3-863.9; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The main novel finding was the association between serum nitrate levels and mortality in COVID-19 patients controlling for the SOFA or APACHE-II scores, though larger studies are needed to confirm this observation.
Perceptions and Representations of Senior Nursing Students about the Transition to Professional Life during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;(8)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused disruptions in education systems worldwide. The suspension of face-to-face lectures and clinical placements directly impacted nursing students' learning. This study aimed to identify the perceptions and representations of senior nursing students about the transition to professional life during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study used a web-based survey from a convenience sample of 162 senior nursing students, from nine different nursing schools. Data collection was carried out in the second quarter of 2020. Male students have more negative representations related to training (p = 0.048); working students have a better perspective of professional integration (p = 0.038); students who are in a relationship have a more positive perception of interaction with patients (p = 0.047); those who have already defined a service of choice have less insecurity and less fear of making mistakes (p = 0.043). Those who report anxiety about their first place of work have more negative representations about the future in other professional dimensions. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a frequent concern among students. However, it is a dimension that does not negatively contaminate other representations about the professional future. Overall, students showed concerns regarding their performance in providing direct care to the patient and lived up to their fellow nurses' expectations.
Fundus findings in patients admitted with post COVID-19 sepsis in an intensive care unit.
Indian journal of ophthalmology. 2022;(9):3362-3365
Purpose: COVID-19 infection is being increasingly identified as a risk factor for the development of ocular infections, especially endogenous endophthalmitis. Current studies primarily report cases among survivors, and the overall prevalence, especially amongst patients admitted with active sepsis is unknown. We report on the fundus and systemic findings of inpatients who were being treated for post-COVID-19 systemic secondary infections in a tertiary intensive care unit. Methods: Retrospective observational study based on chart review. Results: A total of 24 patients were identified. These included 21 (87.5%) males and 3 (12.5%) females with ages ranging from 33 to 72 years (mean 54.1 years). Pre-existing risk factors included type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, chronic kidney disease, multiple myeloma, and patients on long-term corticosteroid/immunosuppressive treatment. Nine patients (37.5%) died and 15 (62.5%) survived. Of a total of 48 eyes, observed fundus lesions included endogenous endophthalmitis (4 eyes of 2 patients, 8.3%), preretinal hemorrhages (4 eyes of 2 patients, 8.3%), optic disc pallor (2 eyes of 1 patient, 4.1%), moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (4 eyes of 2 patients, 8.3%), Roth spots (2 eyes of 1 patient, 4.1%), and 2 eyes of 1 patient (4.1%) with evidence of previous pan-retinal photocoagulation. Conclusion: Two patients had evidence of endogenous endophthalmitis. These findings suggest that the actual incidence of ocular lesions, especially infections is higher than that reported. Fundus examination should form a part of the management protocol for patients being treated for post-COVID-19 systemic infections.
COVID-19 and Atrial Fibrillation in Older Patients: Does Oral Anticoagulant Therapy Provide a Survival Benefit?-An Insight from the GeroCovid Registry.
Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;(1):105-112
INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent arrhythmia of older patients, associates with serious thromboembolic complications and high mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely affects aged subjects, determining an important prothrombotic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality-related factors in older AF patients with COVID-19. METHODS Between March and June 2020, we enrolled ≥60 year-old in-hospital COVID-19 patients (n = 806) in GeroCovid, a multicenter observational study promoted by the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine. RESULTS The prevalence of AF was 21.8%. In-hospital mortality was higher in the AF group (36.9 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.015). At admission, 51.7, 10.2, and 38.1% of AF cases were taking, respectively, oral anticoagulants (OACs), antiplatelet agents, and no antithrombotic therapy. During hospitalization, 51% patients switched to low-molecular-weight heparins. AF patients who survived were younger (81 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 7 years; p = 0.002) and had a lower CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.9 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.02) than those who died. OAC use before (63.1 vs. 32.3%; p < 0.001) and during hospitalization (34.0 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002) was higher among survivors. At multivariable analysis, lower age, higher self-sufficiency, less severe initial COVID-19 presentation, and the use of vitamin K antagonists (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.84) or direct OACs (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56) at admission, or the persistence of OAC during hospitalization (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), were associated with a lower chance of in-hospital death. CONCLUSION AF is a prevalent and severe condition in older COVID-19 patients. Advanced age, dependency, and relevant clinical manifestations of disease characterized a worse prognosis. Preadmission and in-hospital anticoagulant therapies were positively associated with survival.
Lifestyle and eating habits before and during COVID-19 quarantine in Brazil.
Public health nutrition. 2022;(1):65-75
OBJECTIVE To assess changes in daily habits, food choices and lifestyle of adult Brazilians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN This observational study was carried out with Brazilian adults through an online questionnaire 5 months after the social distance measures implementation. The McNemar, McNemar–Bowker and Wilcoxon tests were used to investigate differences before and during the COVID pandemic period, adopting the statistical significance of P < 0·05. SETTING Brazil. PARTICIPANTS Totally, 1368 volunteers aged 18+ years. RESULTS The volunteers reported a lower frequency of breakfast, morning and lunch snacks (P < 0·05) and a higher frequency of evening snacks and other meal categories during the pandemic period (P < 0·05). The results showed an increase in the consumption of bakery products, instant meals and fast food, while the consumption of vegetables and fruits decreased (P < 0·005). There was a significant increase in the frequency of consumption of alcoholic beverages (P < 0·001), but a reduction in the dose (P < 0·001), increased frequency of smoking (P = 0·007), an increase in sleep and screen time in hours and decrease in physical activity (P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS It was possible to observe an increase in screen time, hours of sleep, smoking and drinking frequency. On the other hand, there was a reduction in the dose of alcoholic beverages but also in the practice of physical activity. Eating habits also changed, reducing the performance of daytime meals and increasing the performance of nighttime meals. The frequency of consumption of instant meals and fast food has increased, while consumption of fruits and vegetables has decreased.
Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and factors associated with severe illness in 813 COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of eastern India.
Advances in respiratory medicine. 2022;(3):193-201
INTRODUCTION This retrospective observational study has been designed to identify clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and factors associated with severe illness in 813 COVID-19 patients hospitalised in an Indian tertiary care hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of patient admitted between 1st July to 15th Aug 2020 with COVID-19 infections. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association of clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters with the risk of severe disease and mortality. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05 (two-tailed). RESULTS Out of 813 study patients, 630 (77.50%) patients were categorised with mild to moderate while 183 (22.50%) patients as severe Covid infection. Mortality was significantly higher in severe Covid patients as compared to mild moderate cases (66.21% vs. 10.31%. p<0.0001. Patients with severe infection were significantly more likely to have diabetes hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and had significantly higher Neutrophil count, serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-Dimer and decreased haemoglobin, lymphocyte and serum calcium than patients with mild-moderate infection. In Multivariate analy-sis, age more than 60 years [AOR: 2.114, 95% CI (1.05-4.254), 0.036], NLR more than 3.3 [AOR: 1.082, 95% CI (1.030-1.137), 0.002] and D-Dimer >1 μg/mL [AOR: 2.999 (1.464- 6.146),0.003] were found significantly associated with severe disease (p < 0.05). Factors associated with mortality were age more than 60 years, presence of breathlessness, severe disease or presence of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS Factors like elderly age (age > 60 years), elevated NRL, CRP, D-Dimer and serum ferritin were associated with sig-nificantly higher risk to develop severe COVID-19 infections. Elderly, and patients with CKD were associated with worse outcome.
Analysis of Clinical Parameters, Drug Consumption and Use of Health Resources in a Southern European Population with Alcohol Abuse Disorder during COVID-19 Pandemic.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;(3)
The disruption in healthcare attention to people with alcohol dependence, along with psychological decompensation as a consequence of lockdown derived from the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative impact on people who suffer from alcohol abuse disorder. Observational real world data pre-post study included 9966 men aged >16 years registered as having the diagnosis of alcohol abuse disorder in the electronic medical records (EMR) of the Aragon Regional Health Service (Spain). Clinical (Glutamate-oxaloacetate -GOT-, Glutamate pyruvate -GPT-, creatinine, glomerular filtration, systolic blood pressure -SBP-, diastolic blood pressure -DBP-, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and body mass index -BMI-), pharmacological (dose per inhabitant per day, DHD, of drugs used in addictive disorders, benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and health resource use variables (primary and specialized care) were considered. A Student's t-test for matched samples was performed to analyze the changes in clinical variables between alcohol abuse disorder patients with and without COVID-19. Only creatinine and LDL showed a significant but clinically irrelevant change six months after the end of the strict lockdown. The total number of DHDs for all drugs included in the study (except for benzodiazepines), decreased. In the same way, the use of health services by these patients also decreased. The impact of COVID-19 among this group of patients has been moderate. The reorganization of health and social services after the declaration of the state of alarm in our country made possible the maintenance of care for this vulnerable population.
Evaluation of the usefulness of vitamin D as a predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19.
Gaceta medica de Mexico. 2022;(1):31-35
INTRODUCTION One of the functions of vitamin D is to regulate respiratory epithelium inflammatory response; therefore, deficiency of this vitamin in the context of COVID-19 could constitute a predictive biomarker of the disease outcome. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of vitamin D for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS Observational, retrospective study in which 154 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included, out of whom 111 survived and 43 died. Vitamin D concentration was determined in all of them. RESULTS A log-rank p-value < 0.032 was obtained for survival when vitamin D concentration was used as a categorical variable (≤ 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL). On Cox proportional analysis, age and vitamin D concentration were shown to be risk factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 (age: HR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.016-1.058, p < 0.001; vitamin D: HR (≤ 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL) = 0.478, 95% CI = 0.237-0.966, p < 0.040). CONCLUSION Age and vitamin D concentration were predictive factors for mortality in COVID-19-infected patients.