Effect of cognitive behavioral therapy program on mental health status among medical student in Palestine during COVID pandemic.
BMC psychiatry. 2022;(1):310
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound psychological influence on everyone in society, and the impact it had on students, particularly medical students, cannot be underestimated. The main purpose of this study is to (1) determine the prevalence of mental disorders among medical students and their associated factors, and (2) examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on mental health problems among medical students. METHODS Between March and May 2021, we conducted a randomized controlled study on two phases among medical students at An-Najah National University. Data were collected using an online questionnaire and the Arabic version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We also used the MEDAS tool to assess their Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence. In the second phase, sixty-six students were recruited and assigned randomly to control and intervention groups. Intervention impact was assessed using 12-item General Health Questionnaire at two-time points; baseline, and 8 weeks post-intervention. The interventional model used was cognitive behavioral therapy, and the control group received no treatment. RESULTS A total of 329 students were included in the analysis of the first phase of the study. Approximately 28% of students had mental health problems. We found a significant relationship between good mental health status with a higher level of physical activity level, longer sleeping hours, and shorter entertainment time (p < 0.05). In the second phase of the study, a total of 91 students were included. Overall, using the CBT program showed a significant improvement in the outcome measures. At 8 weeks post-intervention, students had lower scores on total GHQ-12, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. CONCLUSION These findings propose that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students and that CBT programs can be used for the management of mental health problems among medical students.
Effects of face masks on performance and cardiorespiratory response in well-trained athletes.
Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society. 2022;(3):264-271
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, compulsory masks became an integral part of outdoor sports such as jogging in crowded areas (e.g. city parks) as well as indoor sports in gyms and sports centers. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of medical face masks on performance and cardiorespiratory parameters in athletes. METHODS In a randomized, cross-over design, 16 well-trained athletes (age 27 ± 7 years, peak oxygen consumption 56.2 ± 5.6 ml kg-1 min-1, maximum performance 5.1 ± 0.5 Watt kg-1) underwent three stepwise incremental exercise tests to exhaustion without mask (NM), with surgical mask (SM) and FFP2 mask (FFP2). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were monitored by spiroergometry and blood lactate (BLa) testing throughout the tests. RESULTS There was a large effect of masks on performance with a significant reduction of maximum performance with SM (355 ± 41 Watt) and FFP2 (364 ± 43 Watt) compared to NM (377 ± 40 Watt), respectively (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.50). A large interaction effect with a reduction of both oxygen consumption (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.34) and minute ventilation (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.39) was observed. At the termination of the test with SM 11 of 16 subjects reported acute dyspnea from the suction of the wet and deformed mask. No difference in performance was observed at the individual anaerobic threshold (p = 0.90). CONCLUSION Both SM and to a lesser extent FFP2 were associated with reduced maximum performance, minute ventilation, and oxygen consumption. For strenuous anaerobic exercise, an FFP2 mask may be preferred over an SM.
Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Preventive Care Program during the Compound Humanitarian Crisis and COVID-19 Pandemic in Venezuela.
Effective preventive care programs are urgently needed during humanitarian crises, as has been especially obvious during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pragmatic trial was designed: hybridized intervention (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP] + medical nutrition therapy + liquid diet [LD]; LD group) vs. DPP only (DPP group). The participants were adults who were overweight/obese and at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The LD consisted of a "homemade" milk- and fruit-juice-based beverage. Pandemic restrictions delayed the program by nine months, tripled the amount of time required for screening, and reduced the total sample to 60%. Eventually, 127 participants were randomized, and 94/127 participants (74.0%) completed the first phase. Participant dropout was influenced by migration, COVID-19 symptoms, education level, and socioeconomic status. In two months, the LD group lost 2.9 kg (p < 0.001) and the DPP group, 2.2 kg (p < 0.001) (between-group p = 0.170), with improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors. At this stage, the DPP was shown to be feasible and effective, demonstrating weight loss with the improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors in a primary setting in Venezuela, a middle-income country with a chronic humanitarian crisis, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A home-based exercise program during COVID-19 pandemic: Perceptions and acceptability of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis adolescents.
OBJECTIVES To investigate the perceptions and acceptability of a home-based exercise intervention in systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) adolescent patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the effects of the intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep quality, and mental health conditions parameters. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week, home-based exercise training program conducted between October and December 2020. During this period, social distancing measures were in place in Brazil to contain the spread of COVID-19. Adolescent patients diagnosed with JSLE and JIA participated in the study. Health-related qualitative and quantitative data were collected before and after the follow-up. RESULTS 21 JSLE patients and 30 JIA patients were analyzed. Six themes emerged from patients' feedback: 1) Suitability of the home-based format; 2) Appropriate trainer supervision, 3) Motivators and facilitators for the program; 4) Barriers to the program; 5) Health benefits; 6) Patients' suggestions to improve the program. Overall, data indicated that the intervention showed good acceptability and elicited improvements in the perceived HRQoL and fatigue in JIA and JSLE patients during the pandemic. However, further quantitative analyses with validated HRQoL, sleep quality, and mental health conditions instruments did not capture these benefits (p>0.05). CONCLUSION Our main findings based on in-depth qualitative assessments suggest that a home-based exercise training program was suitable and well-accepted by adolescents with JSLE and JIA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, adherence was not high, particularly among JIA patients, suggesting that facilitators and barriers identified in the current study should be explored to improve the quality of new home-based exercise programs implementation, particularly in a future emerging crisis.
Randomized crossover study comparing quantitative fit tests between Trident™ and 3M™ Aura™ N95/P2 respirators.
Infection, disease & health. 2022;(2):61-65
BACKGROUND Various styles of N95/P2 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) have been used by Australian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is usually driven by the national stockpile availability. Many studies demonstrate three-panel flat-fold N95/P2 FFRs have higher quantitative fit test (QNFT) pass rates than other FFR styles. This prospective randomized crossover study utilized QNFT to evaluate the performance of the new three-panel flat-fold FFR, the Trident™ P2 respirator compared to the previously most effective model, the 3M™ Aura™ 9320A + N95 respirator. METHODS We recruited 500 participants who completed online training and QNFT on both respirators. The order of the respirator being examined first was randomly allocated. The primary outcome was the QNFT pass rate. Secondary outcomes included the overall fit factor, the individual fit factor for each exercise, and the first-attempt QNFT pass rate. RESULTS We found that both the overall and first-attempt QNFT pass rates of the Trident P2 respirator were significantly higher than the 3M Aura (99.2% vs 92.6%, p < 0.001; and 92.6% vs 76.4%, p < 0.001 respectively). The overall fit factor and the individual fit factor were also significantly higher for the Trident FFR than the 3M Aura. CONCLUSIONS This study is the first to report hospital-based QNFT results of the Trident FFR, demonstrating very high first-time and overall pass rates. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing very high QNFT pass rates with three-panel flat-fold FFRs. These findings are important for pandemic preparedness with respect to the stockpiling and safe utilization of N95/P2 respirators.
The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Muscle Atrophy Following Meniscal Repair or Chondral Restoration Surgery in Active Duty Military: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of sport rehabilitation. 2022;(1):77-84
CONTEXT Recently, blood flow restriction (BFR) training has gained popularity as an alternative to high-load resistance training for improving muscle strength and hypertrophy. Previous BFR studies have reported positive treatment effects; however, clinical benefits to using BFR following meniscal repair or chondral surgery are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of resistance exercises with BFR training versus exercises alone on self-reported knee function, thigh circumference, and knee flexor/extensor strength postmeniscal or cartilage surgery. DESIGN Single-blinded randomized controlled trial in an outpatient military hospital setting. Twenty participants were randomized into 2 groups: BFR group (n = 11) and control group (n = 9). METHODS Participants completed 12 weeks of postoperative thigh strengthening. The BFR group performed each exercise with the addition of BFR. Both groups continued with the prescribed exercises without BFR from 12 weeks until discharged from therapy. Thigh circumference and self-reported knee function were measured at 1, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively along with knee extensor and flexor strength at 12 and 24 weeks. Change scores between time points were calculated for knee function. Limb symmetry indices (LSI) were computed for thigh circumference and knee strength variables. RESULTS Seventeen participants were included in the final analyses (BFR = 8 and control = 9) due to COVID-19 restrictions. There were no interactions or main effects for group. Time main effects were established for change in knee function scores, thigh circumference LSI, and knee extensor strength LSI. However, knee flexor strength LSI had no main effect for time. CONCLUSION The outcomes of this trial suggest that resistance exercises with and without BFR training may result in similar changes to function, thigh atrophy, and knee extensor strength postmeniscus repair/chondral restoration, though further study with larger sample sizes is needed.
Effect of telerehabilitation applied during COVID-19 isolation period on physical fitness and quality of life in overweight and obese individuals.
International journal of obesity (2005). 2022;(1):95-99
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training through telerehabilitation applied during COVID-19 isolation period on overweight and obese individuals on physical fitness and quality of life. SUBJECTS/METHODS In our study, 41 participants between the ages of 18-65 years and whose BMI values were 25 kg/m2 and above were randomly divided into two groups as telerehabilitation group (n: 21) and control group (n: 20). Exercise training applied to the telerehabilitation group with remote live connection included warm-up exercises, trunk stabilization exercises and breathing exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist for 6 weeks, 3 days in a week. The control group was only informed about the importance of exercise for one session and evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks. The physical fitness levels of individuals was assessed by Senior Fitness Test protocol and quality of life by Short Form-36. RESULTS As a result of the study, statistically significant improvements were obtained in all parameters of physical fitness, quality of life in the telerehabilitation group (p < 0.05). In the difference values of the two groups, all parameters of physical fitness and quality of life were observed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of telerehabilitation group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS As a result, it was found that exercise training applied through telerehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic process was an effective, safe and viable approach in overweight and obese individuals. In the future, studies investigating the long-term effectiveness of telerehabilitation in this population are needed.
Does m-health-based exercise (guidance plus education) improve efficacy in patients with chronic low-back pain? A preliminary report on the intervention's significance.
BACKGROUND The utilization of mobile health (m-health) has rapidly expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, and there is still a lack of relevant clinical data pertaining to chronic low-back pain (CLBP) management. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of m-health-based exercise (via guidance plus education) versus exercise (via guidance) during CLBP management. METHODS Participants (n = 40) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received m-health-based exercise (via guidance plus education), whereas the control group received m-health-based exercise (via guidance). The exercise prescription video and educational content were sent to participants by the application (app), Ding Talk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the baseline's intervention effects, 6-week follow-up, and 18-week follow-up. We selected function (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire) and pain intensity (current, mean, and most severe Numeric Rating Scale in the last 2 weeks) as the primary outcomes, changes of negative emotion (depression, anxious), and quality of life as the secondary outcomes. RESULTS Time's significant effect was found in pain, function, and health-related quality of life in both groups, but time did not show significant interaction effects. Participants were able to use m-based education with their anxiety and depression after treatment, but the relief only lasted until week 6. No differences were found on the aspect of mental health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION Preliminary findings suggest that m-health-based exercise (via guidance) may be a convenient and effective method to treat CLBP. However, additional health education didn't help more. More rigorous controlled trials are needed to improve the therapeutic effect in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Number ChiCTR2000041459 . Registered on December 26, 2020.
Molecular Hydrogen Positively Affects Physical and Respiratory Function in Acute Post-COVID-19 Patients: A New Perspective in Rehabilitation.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;(4)
Molecular hydrogen (H2) is potentially a novel therapeutic gas for acute post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients because it has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and antifatigue properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of H2 inhalation on the respiratory and physical fitness status of acute post-COVID-19 patients. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study included 26 males (44 ± 17 years) and 24 females (38 ± 12 years), who performed a 6-min walking test (6 MWT) and pulmonary function test, specifically forced vital capacity (FVC) and expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Symptomatic participants were recruited between 21 and 33 days after a positive polymerase chain reaction test. The experiment consisted of H2/placebo inhalation, 2 × 60 min/day for 14 days. Results showed that H2 therapy, compared with placebo, significantly increased 6 MWT distance by 64 ± 39 m, FVC by 0.19 ± 0.24 L, and, in FEV1, by 0.11 ± 0.28 L (all p ≤ 0.025). In conclusion, H2 inhalation had beneficial health effects in terms of improved physical and respiratory function in acute post-COVID-19 patients. Therefore, H2 inhalation may represent a safe, effective approach for accelerating early function restoration in post-COVID-19 patients.
The Impact of Telephone-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Mental Health Distress and Disordered Eating Among Bariatric Surgery Patients During COVID-19: Preliminary Results from a Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial.
Obesity surgery. 2022;(6):1884-1894
BACKGROUND Patients undergoing bariatric surgery have high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, which may increase their vulnerability to COVID-19-related mental health distress. Exacerbation of mental health distress and disordered eating could have significant negative effects on long-term weight management and quality of life for these patients if untreated. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of a telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention in improving depressive, anxiety, and disordered eating symptoms during COVID-19. METHODS Participants were recruited as part of a larger randomized controlled trial study (clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT03315247) between March 2020 and March 2021 and randomized 1:1 to receive Tele-CBT or standard bariatric care. Outcomes of Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Emotional Eating Scale (EES), and Binge Eating Scale (BES) were measured at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Linear mixed models were used to test the effect of intervention group, time, and group-by-time interaction for each outcome. RESULTS Eighty-one patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Mean (SD) age of participants was 47.68 (9.36) years and 80.2% were female. There were significant group-by-time interactions for all outcomes and significant differences between groups across time. There were significant decreases in mean GAD-7 (p = 0.001), PHQ-9 (p < 0.001), EES-Total (p = 0.001), EES-Anger (p = 0.003), EES-Anxiety (p < 0.001), EES-Depression (p < 0.001), and BES (p = 0.002) scores for the Tele-CBT group at post-intervention and follow-up when compared to baseline and the control group. CONCLUSION Tele-CBT is a feasible and effective treatment for improving psychological distress and disordered eating among post-operative bariatric surgery patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.