The effect of different sources of fish and camelina sativa oil on immune cell and adipose tissue mRNA expression in subjects with abnormal fasting glucose metabolism: a randomized controlled trial.
Nutrition & diabetes. 2019;9(1):1
Plain language summary
Dietary fish oils, particularly omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in oily fish, nuts and seeds have long been researched and purported to have both anti-inflammatory and glucose-stabilising effects when consumed orally and it is widely believed that in reducing low-grade inflammation and stabilising blood glucose levels, the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes, heart disease or a stroke is reduced. Lean fish on the other hand has been far less researched with regards to its protective effects. This study was a randomised controlled study designed to assess and compare the protective effects of fish oils and Camelina Sativa oil (CSO - a seed oil containing alpha-linolenic acid) on inflammatory-related genes in subjects with suggestive pre-diabetes. Subjects were allocated to a randomised group and instructed to consume a given amount of either fatty fish, lean fish, camelina oil, or no fish/oil (control group). The study was carried out on 72 participants over a 12-week period. Although no significant change could be seen on inflammatory gene expression for the group consuming fatty fish, there was a modest decrease in inflammatory gene markers in the group consuming lean fish and a significant decrease in the group consuming CSO. Implications from this study suggest that CSO exerts its protective effect by reducing inflammation, therefore possibly decreasing the risk of strokes and cardiovascular episodes. The authors suggest that consuming a variety of fish, especially lean fish 4 times/ week could also play a protective role in cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Molecular mechanisms linking fish and vegetable oil intakes to their healthy metabolic effects may involve attenuation of inflammation. Our primary aim was to examine in a randomized controlled setting whether diets enriched in fatty fish (FF), lean fish (LF) or ALA-rich camelina sativa oil (CSO) differ in their effects on the mRNA expression response of selected inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. SUBJECTS/METHODS Samples from 72 participants randomized to one of the following 12-week intervention groups, FF (n = 19), LF (n = 19), CSO (n = 17) or a control group (n = 17), were available for the PBMC study. For SAT, 39 samples (n = 8, n = 10, n = 9, n = 12, respectively) were available. The mRNA expression was measured at baseline and 12 weeks by TaqMan® Low Density Array. RESULTS In PBMCs, LF decreased ICAM1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), which was different (P = 0.06, Bonferroni correction) from the observed increase in the FF group (P < 0.05). Also, compared to the control group, LF decreased ICAM1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in ICAM1 mRNA expression correlated positively with the intake of FF (P < 0.05) and negatively with the intake of LF (P < 0.05), independently of study group. A diet enriched in CSO, a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), decreased PBMC IFNG mRNA expression (P < 0.01). The intake of CSO in the CSO group, but not the increase in plasma ALA proportions, correlated inversely with the IFNG mRNA expression in PBMCs (P = 0.08). In SAT, when compared with the control group, the effect of FF on decreasing IL1RN mRNA expression was significant (P < 0.03). CONCLUSION We propose that CSO intake may partly exert its benefits through immuno-inflammatory molecular regulation in PBMCs, while modulation of ICAM1 expression, an endothelial/vascular-related gene, may be more dependent on the type of fish consumed.
Adipose tissue inflammation in breast cancer survivors: effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention.
Breast cancer research and treatment. 2018;168(1):147-157
Plain language summary
Obese breast cancer patients have double the mortality compared to non-obese patients. This is thought to be mediated by low grade inflammation of the adipose (fat) tissue. The main type of immune cells involved in the process are called adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), of which there are two types: M1 and M2 ATMs, with the M2 ATMs having a mostly anti-inflammatory effect, whilst the M1 ATMs are more pro-inflammatory and are thought to promote cancer growth and recurrence. This 16-week randomised pilot study assessed whether exercise can positively influence adipose tissue inflammation in breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomised to either an exercise (EX) group, who had three supervised exercise sessions per week with a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, or a control (CON) group. Outcome measures included body composition, blood biomarkers for systemic inflammation and adipose tissue biopsies which were analysed for tissue inflammatory markers, including M1 and M2 ATMs. The EX group had significant improvements in body weight and composition, as well as in metabolic blood parameters (including those for lipid and glucose metabolism) and inflammatory markers, whilst the CON group experienced a worsening of these parameters. The EX participants also had a decrease in the pro-inflammatory M1 ATMs and an increase in the anti-inflammatory M2 ATMs. The authors state that the results were not only statistically, but also clinically significant. The authors conclude that moderate-to-vigorous intensity resistance and aerobic exercise can improve adipose tissue inflammation in obese breast cancer survivors.
PURPOSE Obesity is a leading modifiable contributor to breast cancer mortality due to its association with increased recurrence and decreased overall survival rate. Obesity stimulates cancer progression through chronic, low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue, leading to accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), in particular, the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype macrophage. Exercise has been shown to reduce M1 ATMs and increase the more anti-inflammatory M2 ATMs in obese adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 16-week exercise intervention would positively alter ATM phenotype in obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS Twenty obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were randomized to a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise (EX) intervention or delayed intervention control (CON). The EX group participated in 16 weeks of supervised exercise sessions 3 times/week. Participants provided fasting blood, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and superficial subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies at baseline and following the 16-week study period. RESULTS EX participants experienced significant improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and systemic inflammation (all p < 0.03 vs. CON). Adipose tissue from EX participants showed a significant decrease in ATM M1 (p < 0.001), an increase in ATM M2 (p < 0.001), increased adipose tissue secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, and decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- α (all p < 0.055). CONCLUSIONS A 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention attenuates adipose tissue inflammation in obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Future large randomized trials are warranted to investigate the impact of exercise-induced reductions in adipose tissue inflammation and breast cancer recurrence.
A Pilot Study To Investigate the Immune-Modulatory Effects of Fasting in Steroid-Naive Mild Asthmatics.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2018;201(5):1382-1388
Plain language summary
Previous studies have shown that caloric restriction and fasting may modulate immune function and have positive effects in asthmatics. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of fasting on specific inflammatory markers that might mediate such benefits. 18 mild asthmatics, 5 of whom were not on steroid inhalers, fasted for 24 hours. Lung function and immune parameters were evaluated at baseline and 2.5 hours after the first meal following the fast. There were significant differences between subjects who were and were not on steroid inhalers. Whilst one day of fasting did not affect lung function, a number of inflammatory parameters were improved by fasting in those not taking steroid inhalers, but not in those who were taking steroids. The authors conclude that caloric restriction might be considered as a strategy to improve systemic and pulmonary inflammation in asthma.
A fasting mimetic diet blunts inflammation, and intermittent fasting has shown ameliorative effects in obese asthmatics. To examine whether canonical inflammatory pathways linked with asthma are modulated by fasting, we designed a pilot study in mild asthmatic subjects to assess the effect of fasting on the NLRP3 inflammasome, Th2 cell activation, and airway epithelial cell cytokine production. Subjects with documented reversible airway obstruction and stable mild asthma were recruited into this study in which pulmonary function testing (PFT) and PBMCextraction was performed 24 h after fasting, with repeated PFT testing and blood draw 2.5 h after refeeding. PFTs were not changed by a prolonged fast. However, steroid-naive mild asthmatics showed fasting-dependent blunting of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, PBMCs from these fasted asthmatics cocultured with human epithelial cells resulted in blunting of house dust mite-induced epithelial cell cytokine production and reduced CD4+ T cell Th2 activation compared with refed samples. This pilot study shows that prolonged fasting blunts the NLRP3 inflammasome and Th2 cell activation in steroid-naive asthmatics as well as diminishes airway epithelial cell cytokine production. This identifies a potential role for nutrient level-dependent regulation of inflammation in asthma. Our findings support the evaluation of this concept in a larger study as well as the potential development of caloric restriction interventions for the treatment of asthma.
Disruption of maternal gut microbiota during gestation alters offspring microbiota and immunity.
Plain language summary
The gut microbiota is key for immune development, especially during a critical window in infancy, and it has been shown that maternal diet before, during and after pregnancy influences infant metabolism and gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal antibiotics administration during gestation and nursing on offspring gut microbiota and immunity. Pregnant mice, dams, received oral vancomycin in drinking water 5 days prior to give birth (gestation group), 14 days after delivery (nursing group) or 5 days prior to delivery and throughout nursing (gestation plus nursing group), while control mice received no vancomycin. Adaptive immunity and gut microbiota in dams and pups were analysed at various times after delivery. This study showed that antibiotic alteration of maternal gut microbiota during both pregnancy and nursing results in changes in the adaptive immunity in offspring. The authors conclude these findings are important as they provide insight into the mechanism by which maternal exposures during pregnancy may impact infant health, therefore identifying potential targets for intervention.
BACKGROUND Early life microbiota is an important determinant of immune and metabolic development and may have lasting consequences. The maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy or breastfeeding is important for defining infant gut microbiota. We hypothesized that maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a critical determinant of infant immunity. To test this, pregnant BALB/c dams were fed vancomycin for 5 days prior to delivery (gestation; Mg), 14 days postpartum during nursing (Mn), or during gestation and nursing (Mgn), or no vancomycin (Mc). We analyzed adaptive immunity and gut microbiota in dams and pups at various times after delivery. RESULTS In addition to direct alterations to maternal gut microbial composition, pup gut microbiota displayed lower α-diversity and distinct community clusters according to timing of maternal vancomycin. Vancomycin was undetectable in maternal and offspring sera, therefore the observed changes in the microbiota of stomach contents (as a proxy for breastmilk) and pup gut signify an indirect mechanism through which maternal intestinal microbiota influences extra-intestinal and neonatal commensal colonization. These effects on microbiota influenced both maternal and offspring immunity. Maternal immunity was altered, as demonstrated by significantly higher levels of both total IgG and IgM in Mgn and Mn breastmilk when compared to Mc. In pups, lymphocyte numbers in the spleens of Pg and Pn were significantly increased compared to Pc. This increase in cellularity was in part attributable to elevated numbers of both CD4+ T cells and B cells, most notable Follicular B cells. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that perturbations to maternal gut microbiota dictate neonatal adaptive immunity.
Personalized Gut Mucosal Colonization Resistance to Empiric Probiotics Is Associated with Unique Host and Microbiome Features.
Plain language summary
Evidence regarding the efficacy of probiotics in colonising the gut mucosa are sparse. The authors investigated whether probiotics colonise the gut mucosa in mice and humans, using both gut mucosa and stool samples. They found that, in both mice and humans, results from stool samples only partially correlate with colonisation of the gut mucosa as determined through gut mucosa samples. Whilst results were fairly uniform in mice, in humans a person-specific resistance to colonisation of the gut mucosa by probiotics was observed. Inter-person variation could be predicted by the composition of the pre-probiotic microbiome and host immune features.
Empiric probiotics are commonly consumed by healthy individuals as means of life quality improvement and disease prevention. However, evidence of probiotic gut mucosal colonization efficacy remains sparse and controversial. We metagenomically characterized the murine and human mucosal-associated gastrointestinal microbiome and found it to only partially correlate with stool microbiome. A sequential invasive multi-omics measurement at baseline and during consumption of an 11-strain probiotic combination or placebo demonstrated that probiotics remain viable upon gastrointestinal passage. In colonized, but not germ-free mice, probiotics encountered a marked mucosal colonization resistance. In contrast, humans featured person-, region- and strain-specific mucosal colonization patterns, hallmarked by predictive baseline host and microbiome features, but indistinguishable by probiotics presence in stool. Consequently, probiotics induced a transient, individualized impact on mucosal community structure and gut transcriptome. Collectively, empiric probiotics supplementation may be limited in universally and persistently impacting the gut mucosa, meriting development of new personalized probiotic approaches.