Plain language summary
An elevated blood glucose level is one of the key metabolic abnormalities associated with complications in type 2 diabetes. Literature shows that individuals with type 2 diabetes have higher inflammatory levels than those with normal blood glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation can reduce the inflammatory response associated with high-intensity exercise in type 2 diabetic individuals. This was a randomised, double-blind controlled study, which recruited 30 type 2 diabetic men and women aged between 30 and 60 years. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, omega-3 PUFA supplementation diminished the concentration of the total reactive antioxidant potential and triglyceride levels after high intensity exercise, however did not reduce the inflammatory response.
Background: The relationship between diabetes and oxidative stress has been previously reported. Exercise represents a useful non-pharmacological strategy for the treatment in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients, but high intensity exercise can induce a transient inflammatory state and increase oxidative stress. Nutritional strategies that may contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress induced by acute exercise are necessary. The aim of this study was to examine if n-3 PUFA supplementation intervention can attenuate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress associated with high intensity exercise in this population. As a primary outcome, lipoperoxidation measurements (TBARS and F2-isoprostanes) were selected. Methods: Thirty T2DM patients, without chronic complications, were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (gelatin capsules) or n-3 PUFA (capsules containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid). Blood samples were collected fasting before and after 8 weeks supplementation. In the beginning and at the end of protocol, an acute exercise was performed (treadmill), and new blood samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise for measurements of oxidative stress and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results: After the supplementation period, a decrease in triglycerides levels was observed only in n-3 PUFA supplementation group (mean difference and 95% CI of 0.002 (0.000-0.004), = 0.005). Supplementation also significantly reduced TRAP levels after exercise (mean difference and 95% CI to 9641 (- 20,068-39,351) for - 33,884 (- 56,976 - -10,793), = 0.004, Cohen's effect size = 1.12), but no significant difference was observed in n-3 PUFA supplementation group in lipoperoxidation parameters as TBARS (mean difference and 95% CI to - 3.8 (- 10-2.4) for - 2.9 (- 1.6-7.4) or F2-isoprostanes (mean difference and 95% CI -0.05 (- 0.19-0.10) for - 0.02 (- 0.19-0.16), > 0.05 for both. Conclusion: PUFA n-3 supplementation reduced triglycerides as well as TRAP levels after exercise, without a significant effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number of NCT03182712.