Chloroquine chaos and COVID-19: Smart delivery perspectives through pH sensitive polymers/micelles and ZnO nanoparticles.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, Haryana 125001, India.

Arabian journal of chemistry. 2023;(2):104468
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The global pandemic of COVID-19 had a consequential impact on our lives. (Hydroxy)chloroquine, a well-known drug for treatment or prevention against malaria and chronic inflammatory conditions, was also used for COVID patients with reported potential efficacy. Although it was well tolerated, however in some cases, it produced severe side effects, including grave cardiac issues. The variable reports on the administration of (hydroxy)chloroquine in COVID19 patients led to chaos. This drug is a well-known zinc ionophore, besides possessing antiviral effects. Zinc ionophores augment the intracellular Zn2+ concentration by facilitating the zinc ions into the cells and subsequently impair virus replication. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been reported to possess antiviral activity. However, the adverse effects of both components are also reported. We discussed in depth their possible mechanism as antiviral and smart delivery perspectives through pH-sensitive polymers/ micelles and ZnO NPs.

Methodological quality

Publication Type : Review