Plain language summary
Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the prognosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in people with diabetes mellitus have reported an approximately two- to three-fold higher risk of mortality from COVID-19 in people with diabetes mellitus compared with those without diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of emergency on the glycaemic control, eating habits, and body composition of people with diabetes mellitus. This study is a retrospective, longitudinal observational study in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 408 participants were included in this study, including 239 men (58.6%) and 169 women (41.4%). People with type 2 diabetes mellitus were predominant in this study (96.8%). Results show that: - there was a significant increase of the haemoglobin A1c level in people with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic. - there was an increase in the changes in body weight and percent fat (increased) and skeletal muscle masses (decreased). Authors conclude that the COVID-19 pandemic caused a negative impact on the glycaemic control and body composition in people with diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the increase of body weight and fat mass and the decrease of the skeletal muscle mass during the pandemic were associated with poor glycaemic control, independent of the age and sex, in people with diabetes mellitus.
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the glycemic control, eating habits, and body composition of people with diabetes mellitus; to identify the determinants of worsening glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective, longitudinal observational study was performed in outpatients with diabetes mellitus who visited our hospital between April 2019 and March 2020 (pre-COVID-19 period) and continued for follow up from April 2020 to March 2021 (COVID-19 period). We compared the glycemic control, nutritional intakes, and body composition of people with diabetes mellitus between the two periods. The changes in the HbA1c values (ΔHbA1c) and other study variables were compared between the two periods. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the increase of HbA1c levels. RESULTS A significant increase of HbA1c was observed during the COVID-19 period. The percent fat mass (FM) also increased, while the percent skeletal muscle mass (SMM) decreased during the COVID-19 period. After adjustments for age and sex, the ΔBMI (OR:2.33), ΔFM (OR:1.45), and ΔSMM (OR:0.51) were identified as being associated with elevated levels of HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the glycemic control and body composition of people with diabetes mellitus. The increased body weight and FM and decreased SMM observed during the pandemic were associated with poor glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus.